Chapter 1 NTD303

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melissag94
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262122
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Chapter 1 NTD303
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2014-02-15 15:17:22
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NTD303
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NTD303 first test
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  1. diseases that develop over a long period of time
    chronic disease
  2. ex of chronic disease?
    • heart disease
    • diabetes
    • hypertension
    • cancer
  3. the science of foods and nutrients and other substances they contain and of their actions within the body
    nutrition
  4. products derived from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to yield energy and nutrients for the maintenance of life and the growth and repair of tissue
    food
  5. the foods and beverages a person eats and drinks
    diet
  6. what is the number 1 reason most people choose to eat certain foods?
    taste
  7. top three appeals for taste are?
    • sweetness (sugar)
    • savoriness (salt)
    • fat
  8. example of a habit?
    coffee every morning
  9. choices are based on?
    • personal preference
    • habit
    • ethnic heritage or tradition
    • social interactions
    • availability, convenience and economy
    • positive and negative associations
    • emotions
  10. foods that contain physiologically active compounds that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions
    functional foods
  11. non-nutrient compounds is plant derived foods that have biological activity in the body
    phytochemicals
  12. ex of functional foods?
    when you add extra nutrients to a food, like calcium
  13. ex of phytochemicals?
    resveratrol
  14. whole food?
    fresh fruits and vegetables, oatmeal
  15. modified foods?
    foods tweaked to lower the fat content, ex 1% milk
  16. chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulatory agents to support growth, maintenance and repair of the body's tissues
    nutrients
  17. the capacity to do work
    energy
  18. nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body cannot make them for itself
    essential nutrients
  19. units of energy called kcals in nutrition
    calories
  20. essential nutrients are obtained from?
    diet
  21. energy = _____ = _____
    • calories
    • kcals
  22. the 6 classes of nutrients can be grouped in terms of ?
    micro/macro nutrients
  23. 6 classes of nutrients?
    • water
    • minerals
    • vitamins
    • carbohydrates
    • proteins
    • lipids(fats)
  24. non energy yielding nutrients?
    • water
    • minerals
    • vitamins
  25. energy yielding nutrients?
    • carbohydrates
    • proteins
    • lipids
  26. water?
    • hydrogen and oxygen
    • inorganic
  27. minerals?
    • simplest nutrient
    • inorganic
  28. vitamins
    organic
  29. carbohydrates?
    organic
  30. proteins?
    • organic
    • contains nitrogen
  31. only nutrient with nitrogen in its chemical structure?
    proteins
  32. lipids (fats)?
    organic
  33. inorganic =
    no carbon
  34. non energy yielding nutrients do not provide?
    calories
  35. anything _____ contains chem
    organic
  36. carbs provide how many kcal?
    4 kcal/g
  37. protein provide how many kcals?
    4 kcal/g
  38. fat provide how many k cals?
    9 kcal/g
  39. alcohol provides how many kcal?
    7 kcal/g
  40. nutrient composition in the body is made up mostly of? 2nd? 3rd?
    • carbs, protein, vitamins, minerals
    • fat
    • water
  41. nutrients needed in large amounts of to sustain life
    macronutrient
  42. ex of macronutrient?
    carbs, protein, lipids water
  43. micronutrient?
    nutrients needed in smaller amounts to sustain life
  44. ex of micronutrient?
    • vitamins and minerals
    • (don't provide with energy)
  45. water soluble vitamins?
    B and C
  46. fat soluble vitamins?
    A, D, E, K
  47. almost every bodily action requires assistance from?
    vitamins
  48. ex of destruction to vitamins?
    • steemed broccoli
    • milk store in opaque containers
  49. vitamins ?
    • thirteen organic vitamins
    • facilitate energy release
    • vulnerable to destruction
  50. minerals?
    • do not yield energy
    • sixteen essential minerals
    • indestructible
  51. water?
    medium for all body activities
  52. amount of energy in food depends?
    • on macronutrient composition
    • energy density
  53. a measure of the energy food provides relative to the amount of food
    energy density
  54. metabolism?
    • materials for building body tissues
    • regulation of bodily activities
  55. if the body doesn't use the energy, ?
    it turns into fat
  56. DRI's set standards for?
    • energy nutrients
    • other dietary components
    • physical activity
  57. EAR?
    • estimated average requirements
    • average amount sufficient for half of population
  58. RDA?
    • recommended dietary allowances
    • recommendations to meet needs of most healthy people
    • 98% of population
  59. need scientific evidence to develop ____, if not then you have ____
    • RDA
    • AI
  60. RDA's are based on?
    EAR
  61. AI?
    • adequate intakes
    • expected to exceed average requirements
  62. UL?
    • tolerable upper intake levels
    • point where nutrient is likely to be toxic
  63. EER?
    • estimated energy requirement
    • average dietary energy intake to maintain energy balance
  64. EER defines?
    how many calories you should be eating per day
  65. the deficiency or the excess of a nutrient of energy
    malnutrition
  66. symptoms of malnutrition?
    • diarrhea
    • skin rashes
    • fatigue
    • others
  67. AMDR?
    acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges
  68. What does the AMDR do?
    • reduce risk of chronic disease
    • adequate energy and nutrients
  69. percent kcals from carbohydrate
    45-65%
  70. percent kcals from fat?
    20-35%
  71. percent kcals from protein?
    10-35%
  72. Nutrition assessment is based on?
    ABCDE
  73. A?
    • anthropometric
    • take sombodys height, weight, BMI, body fat %
  74. B?
    • biochemical
    • labs we can get from blood or urine
  75. C?
    • clinical
    • take blood pressure
  76. D?
    • dietary
    • 24 hr food recall
  77. E?
    • environmental
    • socioeconomic status, budget, working stove
  78. which leading causes of death have a direct link to nutrition?
    • heart disease
    • cancer
    • strokes
    • diabetes
  79. leading cause of death?
    heart disease
  80. healthy people 2020 says?
    • increase the proportion of adults who are at a healthy weight
    • reduce the proportion of adults who are obese
  81. when you aren't taking in enough of a nutrient through your diet?
    primary deficiency
  82. you get enough of the nutrient in your diet, but you are either not absorbing or converting is properly in your body
    secondary deficiency

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