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The psychological forces that determine the direction of a person's behavior in an organization, a person's level of effort, and a person's level of persistence.
Direction of Behavior
Which behaviors does a person choose to perform in an organization?
Level of Effort
How hard does a person work to perform a chosen behavior?
Level of Persistence
When faces with obstacles, roadblocks, and stone walls, how hard does a person keep trying to perform a chosen behavior successfully?
Intrinsically Motivated Work Behavior
Behavior that is performed for its own sake.
Extrinsically Motivated Work Behavior
Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment.
A group of theories about work motivation that focuses on employees' needs as the sources of motivation.
A requirement for survival and well-being.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Five universal needs that human beings seek to satisfy.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (Levels)
- Physiological: Basic needs like food, water and shelter
- Safety: Security, stability
- Belongingness: Social interaction, friendship, and love
- Esteem: Need to feel good about oneself
- Self-actualization: Realize one's true potential as a human being
Alderfer's ERG Theory (Levels)
- Existence: Human survival like food, water, clothing, shelter, clothing, and safety
- Relatedness: Good interpersonal relationships and communication
- Growth: Self development and creative and productive work
A theory about work motivation that focuses on how employees make choices among alternative behaviors and levels of effort.
In expectancy theory, the desirability of an outcome to an individual.
In expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which performance of one or more behaviors will lead to the attainment of a particular outcome.
In expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which effort will result in a certain level of performance.
A theory about work motivation that focuses on employees' perceptions of the fairness of their work outcomes and inputs.
In equity theory, the relationships between what an employee gets from a job (outcomes) and what the employee contributes to the job (inputs).
The inequity that exists when a person perceives that his or her outcome/input ratio is greater than the ratio of a referent.
The inequity that exists when a person perceives that his or her outcome/input ratio is less than the ratio of a referent.
Ways to Restore Equity
- Employees can change their inputs or outcomes.
- Employees try to change their referents' inputs or outcomes.
- Employees change their perceptions
- Employees change the referent
- Employees leave the job or force the referent to leave
An employee's perception of overall fairness in his or her organization.
The perceived fairness of the distribution of outcomes in an organization.
The perceived fairness of the procedures used to make decision about the distribution of outcomes in an organization.
The perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment of employees receive from the distributors of outcomes or their managers.
Employee perceptions of the extent to which managers explain their decisions and the procedures they used to arrive at the decisions.
Counterproductive Work Behaviors
Behaviors by an employee that violate organizational values and norms and that can potentially harm individuals and the organization.