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Basal cell carcinoma, in which layers is it found?
•Most common type of skin cancer
•Arises from abnormal growth of Stratum Basale in which cells lack ability to produce keratin
Squamous cell carcinoma, where does it start?
20% of all skin cancers and arises from keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum
-malignant” = invades nearby tissues
-Skin cancer that arises from melanocytes in a preexisting mole
Less than 5% of skin cancers, but most deadly form
What depth do first degree burns go to? what damage do they cause?Wha
partial-thickness burn; involves only the epidermis
- •Marked by redness, slight edema,
- and pain
•Heals in a few days
- •No scarring, no blisters, pain is
- mild (tender)
- •Most sunburns are first-degree
What depth do second degree burns go to? what damage do they cause?
- partial-thickness burn; involves
- the epidermis and part of the dermis
•Leaves part of the dermis intact
•Blisters occur – tissue fluid accumulates between epidermis and dermis
•Epithelium from hair follicle and sweat glands usually takes 2-3 weeks to heal and may result in some scarring
- •Critical if greater than 30% of
- surface area is burned
What depth do third degree burns go to? what damage do they cause?
- full-thickness burn; most susceptible to infection. Epidermis,
- dermis, hair follicles, sweat glands, pain receptors, subcutaneous layer all destroyed
•Painless but life threatening because of fluid loss and bacterial infections
•Skin grafts may be necessary
- •critical if greater than 10% of
- surface area is burned
- •Becomes painful when nerves start
- to re-grow
- –Heat melts collagen and denatures
- protein, and kills cells if hot enough
Skin repair step 1: inflammation, what happens? what two cells release what and what is the effect?
Mast cells release histamine and damaged cells release prostaglandins. Both make blood capillaries more permeable and allow white bloods in to do their job.
Results in: redness, heat, swelling, and pain
Skin repair step 2: Phagocytosis, what is it and what cells do this in this situation?
Ingestion (eating) and clearing away of cellular debris, injured tissue, and bacteria from the injury. Performed by the white blood cells
Skin repair step 2: Scar formation, what cells do this and what do they synthesize?
fibroblasts synthesize scar tissue (dense regular connective tissue)