Interpersonal Chap. 1

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bwood190
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262155
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Interpersonal Chap. 1
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2014-02-16 01:25:18
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Interpersonal Chap
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Interpersonal
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  1. Physical Needs
    • comm affects our personal health
    • no social interaction has a negative effect on our health
  2. Identity needs
    • comm is the only way to help us learn who we are
    • we define ourselves based on feedback from others
    • comm gives us a sense of identity
  3. Social Needs
    • satisfies pleasure, affection, companionship, control and escape
    • more socializing = more happiness
  4. Practical Goals
    • Instrumental goals - goals attained in getting others to act how I want
    • eg. tell barber what hairstlye I want
    • speak and listen effectively are keys in getting a job
    • Maslow's Hierarchy - physiological (food, water, shelter), safety (protection from threats), social, self esteem (believe you are worthwhile), self actualization (develop our potential, best you can be)
  5. Instrumental Goals
    • goals attained in getting others to act how I want
    • eg. tell barber what hairstlye I want
  6. Maslow's Hierarchy
    physiological (food, water, shelter), safety (protection from threats), social, self esteem (believe you are worthwhile), self actualization (develop our potential, best you can be)
  7. Process of Comm.
    Linear view, transactional view
  8. Linear View
    • Linear Comm. View - comm is characterized as a one way event in which message flows from sender to receiver 
    • Sender - person creating message
    • Encodes - put thoughts into words/symbols
    • Message - info transfer b/w sender and receiver
    • Channel - medium through which message travels
    • Receiver - one who notices and attends to message 
    • Decodes - receiver attaches meaning to message. Interpretation
    • Noise - external, physiological or psychological distractions that interfere w accurate transmission and reception of message
    • not accurate model b/c its a rigid one way event
  9. Linear Comm. View
    comm is characterized as a one way event in which message flows from sender to receiver
  10. Sender
    person creating message
  11. Encodes
    put thoughts into words/symbols
  12. Message
    info transfer b/w sender and receiver
  13. Channel
    medium through which message travels
  14. Receiver
    one who notices and attends to message
  15. Decodes
    receiver attaches meaning to message. Interpretation
  16. Noise
    external, physiological or psychological distractions that interfere w accurate transmission and reception of message
  17. Transactional View
    • Transactional Comm model - expands on linear model to better capture comm as a unique human process. Simultaneous send/receive. Ongoing process
    • uses COMMUNICATOR instead of sender/receiver
    • Environments - fields of expertise that reflect how well they understand one anothers behaviour. Not just location, personal experience. Not always obvious, but always a SHARED area. If area is too small comm is hard.
    • noise resides w/i communicators
    • Physiological Noise - biological factors that interfere. Pain, hunger, fatigue, visual problems, pounding heart, body temp, thirst, twitch, hearing loss.
    • Psychological Noise - embarrassment, anger, disappointment, confusion. Forces w/i that interfere w/ the ability to understand a message accurately. Eg. student fails a test, so upset that he's unwilling to learn from mistakes.
    • External - non verbal cues
  18. Transactional Comm model
    • expands on linear model to better capture comm as a unique human process. Simultaneous send/receive. Ongoing process
    • uses COMMUNICATOR instead of sender/receiver
  19. Environments
    • fields of expertise that reflect how well they understand one anothers behaviour.
    • Not just location, personal experience.
    • Not always obvious, but always a SHARED area.
    • If area is too small comm is hard.
  20. Physiological Noise
    • biological factors that interfere.
    • Pain, hunger, fatigue, visual problems, pounding heart, body temp, thirst, twitch, hearing loss.
  21. Psychological Noise
    • embarrassment, anger, disappointment, confusion.
    • Forces w/i that interfere w/ the ability to understand a message accurately.
    • Eg. student fails a test, so upset that he's unwilling to learn from mistakes.
  22. External
    non verbal cues
  23. Interpersonal Comm
    • continuous transactional process involving participants that have different but overlapping environments and create relationships through exchange of messages
    • affected by physiological and psychological noise
    • SHARED MEANING through interaction w/ human beings
    • w/o shared meaning, zero comm happens
  24. Comm can intentional or intentional
    • some is intentional - asking a big favor, criticism
    • some is unintentional - someone eavesdrops, nonverbal comm - a sigh
  25. Comm is irreversible
    • we all say things we regret
    • words said and deeds done are irreversible
  26. Its Impossible not to comm
    • speak or remain silent, info is provided
    • we constantly send messages
    • miscomm is when your meaning is not understood by receiver
    • more understanding of receiver = better comm b/c meaning is understood
  27. Comm is Unrepeatable
    • impossible to recreate an event
    • some words and actions have a different meaning all the time b/c growth is occuring
  28. Comm has content and relational dimension
    • Content Dimension - info explicitly discussed. Eg turn left
    • Relational Dimension - how parties FEEL towards one another. Eg 2 ways of saying "your turn to..."
    • sometimes we don't care about relation. eg. food server just brings food
  29. Content Dimension
    • info explicitly discussed.
    • Eg turn left
  30. Relational Dimension
    • how parties FEEL towards one another.
    • Eg 2 ways of saying your turn to do the dishes. Nice vs. demeaning
  31. More comm is better (misconceptions)
    • can be unproductive
    • too much can generate a (-) response
  32. Meanings are in words (misconceptions)
    meanings are interpreted different by others
  33. Successfu comm always involve shared understanding (misconceptions)
    you can lie to friends to save feelings
  34. single person or event causes reaction
    comm is transactional (human process) therefore not one event causes a reaction
  35. Comm can always solve all problems (misconceptions)
    eg. complaining to teacher about grade, doesn't solve problem
  36. Nature of Interpersonal Comm
    • has 2 views
    • Quantitative
    • Qualitative
  37. Quantitative
    • number of people involved
    • interaction b/w people, usually face to face
    • Dyad - 2 people interacting = dyadic comm
    • in quantitative sense, dyad and interpersonal comm are interchangeable
  38. Qualitative
    • development of unique rules and roles
    • 1. Rational culture. eg. diss friends, more formal w/ others
    • 2. irreplacability, unique and can not be replaced
    • 3. interdependance - others experiences affect you as well
    • 4. disclosure of personal info. thoughts and feelings
    • 5. intrinsic rewards - spend time w/ friends and loved ones b/c its rewarding
  39. Personal/Impersonal
    balancing actmost relationships in b/w the two. can't have too much of a good thing
  40. mediated comm
    • use of computer based tools for human interaction
    • Benefits - can meet new friends, more personal relationships. More globalized network.
    • Not a replacement to face to face, can promote and reinforce it
    • Challenges - leaner messages. Lack of non verbal cues, therefore hard to interpret and easily misunderstood.
    • Disinhibition.
    • Permanence, nothing goes away on the internet
  41. Disinhibition
    send message w/o thinking of consequences. This has two forms, people offer personal info (facebook), and people are more critical than they would be if they were face to face
  42. Comm competence
    • accomplish personal goals and enhance relationship
    • no ideal way to comm.
    • how to learn? Watch effective models, watch and learn
  43. Competence is situational
    • good w/ friends, bad w/ strangers
    • we have areas of competence. eg. good w/ young people, bad w/ adults
  44. Competence is relational
    • something w/ not to others
    • is approach effective in eyes of receiver? 
    • behavior not always appropriate in every situation
  45. Competence can be learned
    anyone can learn these skills
  46. Wide range of behaviours
    need a big repertoire of comm tools to help handle situationsable to adapt
  47. ability to choose most appropriate behaviour
    context, goal, and knowledge influence how you act
  48. skill at performing behaviours
    knowledge and put it into practice
  49. Cognitive Complexity
    • construct variety of frameworks for viewing an issue
    • consider issue from several angles
    • critical thinking - explore possibilities and angles
  50. Empathy
    • project oneself into anothers perspective
    • experience someone elses thoughts and feelings
    • most important aspect of competent comm.
  51. Self monitoring
    • attending to your own behaviour and use these observations to shape the way you behave
    • being aware of behaviour and the impression it has
  52. Commitment
    people who car communicate better than people who dont
  53. Stages in learning good comm.
    • 1. Beginning awareness. 
    • 2. Awkward
    • 3. Skilled
    • 4. Integrated
  54. Intercultural comm.
    • comm w/ people from different backgrounds
    • inevitably we will comm w/ these people
    • what is considered competence by some is not to others
    • To do it effectively, need 3 things. 
    • 1. Motivation
    • 2. Tolerance for ambiguity
    • 3. Open mindedness
  55. 1. Motivation (intercultural comm)
    willingness to comm. and reach out
  56. 2. Tolerance for ambiguity (intercultural comm)
    • accept ALL types of messages
    • eg. being quiet can be friendly to some cultures
  57. 3. Open mindedness
    • passive observation
    • active strategies - eg. read watch films, ask q's
    • self disclosure - talk about self to get more out of others

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