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low platelet count
the sifting out of leukocytes so they can be reintroduced
Low white blood cell count
weight loss usually due to a conscious effort to restrict calories/and or activity
causing physical defects in a fetus
- low neutrophil count
- (granular leukocytes)
a carcinogenic compound used as an insecticide, and as a solvent for coal tar
define: bone marrow depression
decrease in the function of blood forming tisssue(bone marrow)
*define auer rods
rod shaped structures present in cytoplasm -found in leukemia
blue or purple hemorrhagic spots
*the first documented case of leukemia was by:(name)
*when leukemic cells accumulate in the bone marrow, there is an impairment of the body's normal production of adequate supplies of:
red blood cells
*normal values for white blood cell count:
what does "weisses blut" mean?
normal values for red blood cell count:
*normal values for platelet count:
*List the differential white blood cells:(6)
- *(Boys Love Every Man's Penis, NOT!!)
*Which kind of leukemia is NOT associated with previous radiation exposure?
the most important diagnostic factor for detecting CML is
location of the Philadelphia chromosome
*Explain radiation techniques(field size,immobilization devices, beam arrangements, dose structure, etc.) for TBI:
total body irradiation may be used in the management of leukemia by having the patient positioned sitting in fetal position or at an extended distance from the machine or lying supine, or standing, Smalll children may be treated lying supine as their bodies are small enough to be contained in the collimator opening. Low dose TBI can be 10cGy/day to total of 4.5 Gy. Special precautions to protect the lungs and lens (vary position or using shields)
Explain radiation techniques( for HELMET):
A modification of the whole brain treatment fields. The lower border extends to C2 and there is NO collimator rotation. Shield orbits. Lateral fields are aprx 1.5 Gy fx/ total 25-35 Gy
*Explain radiation techniques(field size,immobilization devices, beam arrangements, dose structure, etc.) for CNS:
The total CNS is treated with two lateral brain fields as per helmet technique and carefully matching a field which covers the entire spine from C2-3 junction to S2 to give margin on the cauda equine. Daily dose is about 1.5 Gy to a total of 35 Gy to each field.
xplain radiation techniques for bone marrow transplant:
- infusion of bone marrow into recipient. Three types:
- 1)autogolous (self)
- 2)syngeneic (donor is identical twin)
- 3)allogenic (genetically matched but not related)
Integumentary system includes all BUT:
*Why is a gap created when treating total CNS?
to avoid hot spots where fields overlap(divergence)
Define a feathering technique used for a radiation setup:
Feathering requires the relocation of match points or gaps during treatment of adjacent fields. The match point is moved every 3-5 treatments
*What are some reasons for failure in bone marrow transplants?(3)
- 1)recurrent disease
- 2)graft-versus host
- 3)autogolous donors
Patients treated with MTX develop a rapid onset of bone marrow depression, with nadir occuring withing a range of ____-_____days.
*Which of the following would be considered integumentary side effects from chemo drugs seen in leukemia patients
*the field size for treating a spleen clinically would need to allow how much margin?
Patients with____always exhibit lymphocytosis.
*Which leukemia has the worst prognosis?
*When treating a TBI, what might be used during the first treatment to check midline doses.
*In a helmet field treatment, it is very important to cover the meninges and C2, which of the following is NOT a layer of the meninges?
*Which of the leukemias has a hereditary component?
What is a method for definitive diagnoses for ALL?
bone marrow aspiration(biopsy)
*Which quadrant is the spleen located in?
In which of the phases of the cell cycle may t he undifferentiated cells have a decreased proportion of blast cells compared with normal bone marrow in regards to AML? (less blast cells than in in normal bone marrow)