Anesthetic Agents and Adjuncts
Card Set Information
Anesthetic Agents and Adjuncts
proprietary name for glycopyrrolate
what is atropine derived from?
a phenothiazine tranquilizer
zolazepam + tiletamine (telazol)
do tranquilizers produce analgesia?
do benzodiazepines produce analgesia?
this is the mechanism by which benzodiazepines work
increase activity of GABA
benzodiazepine that is not water soluble and therefore, cannot be mixed with other drugs (except ketamine)
this drug is absorbed through plastic
proprietary name for xylazine
proprietary name for dexmedetomidine
proprietary name for detomidine
proprietary name for romifidine
what type of derivative are alpha-2 agonists?
do alpha-2 agonists produce analgesia?
this alpha-2 agonist will cause vomiting in cats and dogs
what type of patient should alpha-2 agonists not be administered to?
patients showing signs of respiratory disease
this species has a much lower tolerance for xylazine
this alpha-2 agonists has greater potency and fewer adverse effects than xylazine
do opioids produce analgesia?
yes- most effective agents for Tx of pain
naturally derived opioids
pure opioid agonists
proprietary name for hydromorphone
proprietary name for oxymorphone
proprietary name for meperidine
partial opioid agonist
proprietary name for butorphanol
pure opioid antagonist
proprietary name for naloxene
total reversal of analgesia associated with opioids can be avoided by using
agonist-antagonist such as butorphanol
duration of action of the drug being reversed is longer than the duration of naloxene
signs of CNS/respiratory depression recur
do not cross the placenta
the least likely of anticholinergics to cause CNS effects because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier
causes penile prolapse in stallions
do tranquilizers cause a reduction in the seizure threshold?
appetite stimulant in cats and ruminants
proprietary name for diazepam
proprietary name for zolazepam
proprietary name for midazolam
proprietary name for lorazepam
this drug reduced secretion of insulin causing transient hyperglycemia
what is the dosage we use for xylazine?
0.25 mL/20 #
second degree AV block is commonly seen with this sedative
proprietary name for acepromazine
duration for acepromazine
what is the dosage strength for ace?
does acepromazine provide antiemetic effects?
does acepromazine provide antihistamine effects?
does acepromazine provide antidysrhythmic effects?
is there a reversal agent for ace?
what are 3 proprietary names for ketmaine?
does ketamine provide analgesia?
catalepsy is associated with what drug?
does ketamine lower the seizure threshold?
what is the dosage we use for ketamine?
this drug is given to reduce salivation and prevent bradycardia
this drug provides longer vagal blocking
this drug is safer to use in animals with pre-existing heart problems because it has causes less tachycardia and cardiac arrhythmias
what is the dosage strength for atropine?
what is the dosage strength for xylazine?
stages of general anesthesia
stage 1- prenarcosis
stage 2- narcosis
stage 3- general anesthesia
plane 2- surgical anesthesia
plane 4- respiratory depression
stage 4- respiratory cessation, general hypoxia >shock<
what is our cocktail for the dog?
0.1 mL/# ketamine, 0.25 mL/20# xylazine, 0.005 mg/# glycopyrrolate
what is our cocktail for the cat?
10 mL vial of ketamine, 1 mL ace, 1 mL glycopyrrolate
why do we never use a phenothiazine derivative tranquilizer on a heart failure patient?
will cause hypotension
a dog that was given xylazine is experiencing respiratory depression, what would you administer now?
this will extend recovery
certain breeds have adverse reactions to iso/sevo, resulting in:
fluid flow and diuresis must be monitored constantly in pediatric/geriatric patients. why?
young- kidneys not fully developed yet to diuresis
old- wear and tear on kidney, not working as good anymore
less than 2 wks
preoperative fasting of neonate may be inadvisable because of
hypoglycemia and dehydration
these drugs should be avoided in neonates since the liver is inefficient in the metabolism of them
reasons to use a catheter
highly alkaline anesthetics causing perivascular irritation
inject more than 1 item with different syringes
drugs for systemic problems (organ function)
drugs that need prolonged administration
synthetic colloids (dextran, hetastarch)
plasma expander, increases total blood volume
main reasons to use glycopyrrolate over atropine
longer vagal blocker
safer to use with preexisiting heart problems (less tachycardia/dysrhythmias)
what is the primary reason we use pre-anesthetics?
to reduce the amount of general anesthetic needed
reduced mental activity with some reduction in pain
thiazine derivatives are also known as
what is the main side effect associated with sedatives?
amount of gas actually needed to maintain stage 3, plane 2
lower the #, the better
natural stimulants of opioid receptors
to check oxygenation, you look where?
under the tongue
ultra short acting barbiturates
thiamylal sodium (biothal)
thiopental sodim (pentothal)
what is the length of duration for ultra-short acting?
what is the length of duration for short acting?
45 min-1 hr
what is the length of duration for long acting?
short acting bariturate
long acting barbiturate
one injection of propfol provides what duration of anesthesia?
what is the dosage for propofol?
things to do for shock
3 types of animals prone to hypoxemia and hypercarbia caused by increased mechanical dead space
breed of dog sensitive to ace
breed of dogs resistant to ace
young patients are prone to 2 symptoms with surgery
pediatric/geriatric patients are a concern for what when given IV fluids?
hydremia (over-hydration) due to kidney function
5 classes of anesthetic risk patients
class 1- minimal risk (healthy, elective Sx)
class 2- slight risk (can compensate)
class 3- moderate risk (mild systemic disturbance)
class 4- high risk (shocky, high fever 104+)
class 5- grave risk (Sx necessary for survival)
why should anticholinergics be avoided in ruminants and horses?
sedatives stimulate alpha-2 receptors causing a decrease in this neurotransmitter
4 phases of general anesthesia
type of anesthetic decomposed by liver and excreted through kidneys
pre-narcosis, patient is awake but act unpredictably
narcosis, all reflexes present but will loose consciousness, still able to swallow/bite
swallowing reflex is lost, can now intubate patient (give stage, plane)
stage 3, plane 1
muscles are relaxed, respiration regular, HR&BP mildly depressed (give stage, plane)
stage 3, plane 2
respiration falls below 12 rpm, BP falls below 79, CRT >2sec (give stage, plane)
stage 3, plane 3
respiration cardiac arrest starts, eyes dilate, pupillary light reflex absent (give stage, plane)
stage 3, plane 4
stage where pupils are dilated and fixed, total circulatory collapse and death
a dog that was given a barbiturate is experiencing respiratory depression, what would you administer now?
to make aoritc arch and carotid sinus more sensitive to CO2 concentrations therefore increasing respirations (barbiturates decrease response of CO2 receptors)
not used due to irritation of mm and explosive nature
halothan, sevo, iso, mathoxyflurane, enflurane, desflurane are classified as what type of compound?
the more soluble the agent, the ______(more or less) uptake in blood and tissues which causes what?
a delay in alveolar concentration
low soluble gas (low partition coefficient) means what for the patient?
able to bypass tissues and go straight to CNS= fast induction, fast recovery
name the gases in order of lowest partition coefficient to highest
the lower the numerical measure of the blood:gas coefficient, the _________ (faster or slower) the gas reaches the nerves
exact definition of MAC
the anesthetic concentration required to prevent gross muscular movement in response to painful stimulus in 50% of a tested population
MAC concentration needed for surgical anesthesia
a good anesthetic gas needed for surgical anesthesia should have what 2 properties
low partition coefficient
in order of highest to lowest, MAC of gases for the dog:
how much iso/sevo is metabolized by the liver?
5 factors that affect MAC
high partition coefficient =?
slow induction, slow recovery
drugs contraindicated with epinephrine
all anesthetic gases increase what in the body
cerebral blood flow
gas that produced the most rapid induction and recovery
#1 reason we do not use nitrous oxide for patients
high MAC--hard to maintain anesthesia
what is to be expected when administering propofol?