Nutrition ch 4

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  1. 1.       Where do most/all carbohydrates originate? (who makes them, and how?)
    All / most carbohydrates orginate from photosynthesis (plants)
  2. 1.       Where do carbs come from in our diet?
    Plants or Milk
  3. 1.       What are some important simple carbohydrates? How are they digested, absorbed and metabolized?
    • Monosaccharides
    • Glucose
    • Fructose
    • Galactose
    • *Aborbed directly into blood and sent to liver and converted into glucose

    • Disaccharides
    • Lactose
    • Maltose
    • Sucrose
    • *Broken into monosaccharides first by enzymes then follow same process
  4. 1.       What’s the most abundant/most commonly used monosaccharide?
  5. 1.       What are some complex carbs, and what roles do they play in our diet?
    • Polysaccharides
    • Starch
    • Glycogen
    • Fiber (Soluble and Insoluble)
  6. Glycogen
    Animal storage form of glucose

    Long branched chain of glucose molecules

    Stored in our liver and muscles

    We do not get glycogen from our diet
  7. Starch
    Plants' storage form of glucose

    Long chain of glucose molecules

    stored in seeds to feed next gen

    abundant in grains, potatoes

    Useful b/c it won't dissolve in water and wash away if the seed gets wet

    Human digest starch into glucose
  8. Fiber

    Supporting structures of leaves, steams, and seeds

    Can't be broken down by human digestive enzymes

    Most pass through the body without providing energy

    Bacteria in our large intestine cna partially digest

    small fat fragments are then absorbed into the body
  9. 1.       What are the benefits of including soluble & insoluble fiber in the diet?

    Soluble Fibers
    • Dissolve in water in form gels
    • Easily fermented by bacteria in our colon.

    Found in oats, barley, legumes and citrus fruits

    Lower blood cholesterol

    • Help control blood glucose levels
    • Protect against heart disease and diabetes
  10. 1.       What are the benefits of including soluble & insoluble fiber in the diet?

    Insoluble fibers
    Don't dissolve in water nor form gels

    Less readily fermneted (cellulose)

    Found in outer layers of whole grains (bran), celery strings, seed hulls and corn kernel skin

    Retain structure and texture even after cooking

    Aid in the digestive system by softening stools
  11. Benefits of fiber
    • Lower cholesterol
    • Control blood pressure
    • Modulate blood sugar
    • Maintain healthy bowel function
    • Promote healthy body weight
  12. Isit a good idea to try to lose weight by cutting out carbs? Explain
    Only refined sugars. Have no nutrients other than energy and excessess can exacerbate heart disease.

    Whole grains should NOT be excluded.
  13. 1.       Which of our cells require glucose (and can NOT make do with another energy source)?
    Brain / CNS cells depend almost exclusively on glucose

    RBC use only glucose
  14. 1.       What happens when there is a glucose deficit in the body?
    • Liver converts fats into ketone bodies
    • Ketone bodies are acidic and disturb normal balance of blood (ketosis) which leads to deficiencies in vitamins and minerals, loss of bone minerals, elevated cholesterol, kidney stones and mood changes

    Proteins converted into glucose
  15. 1.       What happens if we eat excess glucose?
    Body tissues shift to burning more glucose for energy

    More fat is left in bloodstream and picked up by adipose tissue and stored

    Liver breaks down glucose into small molecule and assembles them into fats which are released into blood and deposited in adipose tissues.

    Fat cells also take up some glucose directly and convert it into fat
  16. 1.       How are type I and II diabetes different, and which is linked to diet/obesity?
    • Type I : Genetic
    • Autoimune disorder

    Immune system attacks and kills insulin-producing beta cells of the pancrease

    5-10% of diabetes cases which starts in childhood or adolescnece

    Not linked to lifestyle or obesity and treated by insulin injections
  17. 1.       How are type I and II diabetes different, and which is linked to diet/obesity?
    Type II Diabetes

    90-95% of cases

    Incidence has been rising dramatically

    Body tissues lose their sensitivity to insulin (resistance)

    Pancrease makes more and is eventually overworked and the cells begin to fail and reduce their insulin output
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Nutrition ch 4
2014-02-16 16:23:32

Nutrition ch 4
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