Science- Grade 9 Space Unit 1 chapter 8

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Science- Grade 9 Space Unit 1 chapter 8
2014-02-27 21:17:51

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  1. Electromagnetic radiation
    radiation consisting of electromagnetic waves that travel at the speed of light (such as visible light, radio waves and X rays) (8.1)
  2. refracting telescope
    a telescope that uses a lens to collect the light from an object
  3. Reflecting telescope
    a telescope that uses a mirror to collect the light from an object
  4. Satallite
    an artificial (human-made) object or vehicle that orbits Earth, the Moon, or other celestial bodies; also, a celestial body that orbits another of larger size

    E.g. the Moon is Earth's natural satellite
  5. Orbiters
    • Are observatories that orbit other planets 
    • Ex. Messenger from NASA
  6. Protostar
    hat, condensed object at the centre of a nebula (8.2)
  7. Solar Nebula Theory
    • Is the leading theory in planet formation, the theory is that the rotating flattened cloud of gas and dust from which the sun and the rest of the bodies in the solar system formed
  8. Star
    A ball of gas held together by gravity
  9. Nebula
    A cloud of gas and dust in outer space
  10. Nuclear fusion
    the process of energy production in which hydrogen nuclei combine to form helium nuclei
  11. Photosphere
    the surface layer of the Sun
  12. Sunspot
    • an area of strong magnetic fields on the photosphere
  13. Solar wind
    a stream of fast-moving charged particles ejected by the Sun into the solar system
  14. Solar flare
    The event in which magnetic fields explosively eject intense streams of a charged particles into space
  15. Importance of the Sun
    Provides sufficient food and shelter, powers winds and ocean currents, creates weather and photosynthesis
  16. Luminosity
    a star's total energy output per second; its power in joules per second (J/s) (8.3)
  17. Absolute magnitude
    the magnitude of a star that we would observe if the star were placed 32.6 light years from Earth
  18. Spectroscope
    an optical instrument that produces a spectrum from a narrow beam of light, and usually projects the spectrum onto a photographic plate or a digital detector
  19. Spectral lines
    certain specific wavelengths within a spectrum characterized by lines; spectral lines identify specific chemical elements
  20. Hertzprung-Russell (H-R) diagram
    • a graph that compares the properties of stars
  21. main sequence
    a narrow band of stars on the H-R diagram that runs diagonally from the upper left (bright, hot stars) to the lower right (dim, cool stars); about 90 percent of stars, including the Sun, are in the main sequence
  22. White dwarf
    a small, dim, hot star
  23. Supernova
    • a massive explosion in which the entire outer portion of a star is blown off
  24. neutron star
    a star so dense that only neutrons can exist in the core
  25. How low mass stars evolve
    • by consuming thier hydrogen slowly over a period of time. During that time they lose significant mass.
  26. How intermediate-mass stars evolve
    Consume hydrogen quickly, when the hydrogen is used up thier core collapses. As the core contracts, temperatures and outer layers heat and expand. The expanded layers are cooler and appear red, at this phase the star is called a red giant.
  27. Black hole
    A tiny patch in space that has no volume but has a mass
  28. How high-mass stars evolve
    In massive stars the core heats up to much higher temperatures. Heavier elements form by fusion and the star exapnds into a super giant. Eventually the iron core collapses and a shock wave travels through the star. The outer portion of the star explodes creating a supernova