Nutrition Ch 5

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llindse2
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262235
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Nutrition Ch 5
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2014-02-16 14:55:58
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Nutrition
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Nutrition Ch 5
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  1. 1.       What are the three types/categories of lipids?
    Triglycerides (FATS AND OILS)

    Phospholipids (lecithin)

    Sterols (Cholesterol)
  2. 1.       What are some functions of each type in the body?
    Triglycerides (body tissues can disassemble TG's as needed)

    Fatty acids can be saturated (no double bonds) or unsaturated (double bonds)
  3. 1.       What are some functions of each type in the body?
    Phospholipds (great emulsifiers) help disperse fats in water.

    Main component of cell membrances

    Lecithin (from egg yolks) used for vinger and oil, mayonnaise, and cooking spray / butter substitutes
  4. 1.       What are some functions of each type in the body?
    Sterols

    Cholesterol used by liver to make emulsifiers in bile for fat digestion and is a compenent of cell membranes

    Vitamin D is made from cholesterol

    Steroid Hormones  (Estrogen and Tesosterone )

    Plant sterols inhibit cholesterol absorption and lower blood cholesterol levels
  5. 1.       What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
    • Saturated Fats
    • No double bonds solid at room temperature

    Animal Fats

    Coconut and palm oil

    Shortening, sitck margarine, fried/baked products
  6. 1.       What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
    Unsaturated

    • At least one double bond
    • Liquid at room temperature

    • Vegetable oils
    • fish oils
    • Olive Oils
  7. What are some good food sources of lipids?
    Linolenic  and linolenic acid

    Vegetable/fish oils eggs, chicken, beef (stay under 200 mg)
  8. 1.       What are the pros and cons of cholesterol? Where in the body is it used, and for what?
    Eating cholesterol causes body to synthesize les sof it

    Hard to eliminate without omitting nutritious foods
  9. 1.       How are lipids digested, absorbed and moved throughout the body?
    • Digested mainly in the small intestine
    • Bile contains emulsifiers

    • Fat-digesting pancreatic enzymes split fatty acids from glycerol
    • End up with free fatty acids, phospholipids, and monoglycerides

    Cells lining the small intestine absorb the lipids

    Small Fat molecules pass through intestinal cells directly into bloodstream

    End up with free fatty acids that are sent to liver

    Larger lipids would not stay dissolved in blood and moved within lipoproteins
  10. 1.       What are LDL and HDL? Which is better for you, and why?
    Low density lipoproteins ( transport cholesterol and other lipids to tissues.

    Larger, lighter, more cholesterol contributes to lipid deposition in the blood vessels inflammation, damage to arteries, and heart disease

    Bad Cholesterol
  11. 1.       What are LDL and HDL? Which is better for you, and why?
    • High density lipoproteins
    • smaller, more protein

    carries excess cholesterol from tissues to liver for disposal

    opposses effects of high LDL

    protects against heart attacks

    "good cholesterol"
  12. 1.       Where in the diet does a lot of saturated fat come from?
    CHEESE

    Meat

    Dressing, butter, oil dessert
  13. 1.       How many fatty acids are essential? What are good food sources?
    • 2
    • Linoleic acid and linolenic acid

    vegetable oils
  14. 1.       What are trans fats, and why should we avoid them?
    hydrogenation of unstaturated fats that prevent spoilage and makes liquid fat/oil harder and more stable at high temperature.

    increase tissue imflammation, raise LDL cholesterol, lower HDL at higher intakes, health risk similar to saturated fats
  15. 1.       What is the main dietary source of trans fats in the diet?
    Commercially fried foods

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