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Functions of the lymphatic system: Fluid continually filters from our capillaries into the interstitial fluid space- the blood capillaries absorb about 85% of it. The 15% that they do not absorb is absorbed by the lymphatic system and returned to the bloodstream?
The components of the lymphatic system: The recovery fluid?
Transport the lymph?
In which these cells are especially concentrated and which are set off from surrounding organs by connective tissue capsules (spleen, tonsils, red bone marrow, thymus, and lymph nodes)?
Are closely associated with blood capillaries but are closed on one end?
Of these capillaries are not joined by tight junction nor do they have a continuous basement membrane- The gaps between them are so wide that bacteria, lymphocytes and other cells can enter along with fluid?
Clear colorless fluids similar to plasma but low in protein- Originates in tissue fluid that has been taken up by the lymphatic vessels?
Contains a large number of lymphocytes- This is the main supply of lymphocytes to the blood stream.
Lymph leaving the lymph nodes
The over lapping edges of the endothelial cells act as?
When tissue fluid is high it pushes the flaps?
When pressure is higher in the lymphatic capillary than in the tissue fluid, flaps are pressed _______ which is closed.
The route from tissue fluid back to the blood stream; 5 steps?
- Lymphatic capillaries
- Collecting vessels
- Six lymphatic trunks
- two collecting ducts
- subclavian veins
As the lymphatic system absorbs the excess fluid it also picks up foreign cells?
Lymph is picked up by?
Lymphatic capillaries have _____ veins.
The collecting vessels converge to form six lymphatic trunks?
- Lumbar trunks
Drains lumbar areas as well as lower limbs?
Lymphatic trunks converge to form two collecting ducts?
The right lymphatic duct
The thoracic duct
-Formed by the convergence of the right jugular, subclavian, and brochomediastinal trunks in the right thoracic cavity?
-Recevies lymphatic drainage from the right arm, right side of head, right side of thorax and empties into the right subclavian vein?
Right lymphatic duct
-Larger and longer- Begins just below the diaphragm anterior to the vertebral column at the level of the second lumber vertebra
-At the point of the origin the two lumbar trunks and the intestinal trunk converge to form a prominent sac called the cisterna chyli
-Passes through the diaphragm with the aorta and ascends into the mediastinum
-It receives lymph from the left jugular trunk and empties into the left subclavian vein?
The thoracic duct
Only a small portion of the body drains into the _________, everywhere else drains by _______.
Right lymphatic duct
-Have well defined anatomical sites and connective tissue capsules that separate the lymphatic tissue from neighboring tissues
-Red bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils and spleen
Red bone marrow and Thymus are regarded as _______ lymphatic organs because they are where T and B lymphocytes become immunocompetent ( able to recognize antigens).
Primary lymphatic organs
The lymph nodes, tonsils and spleen are ________ lymphatic organs because they are populated with immunocompetent cells only after they have matured in primary organs
Is a important supplier of lymphocytes to the immune system
Red bone marrow
Member of both the lymphatic and endocrine system- Located between the sternum and the aortic arch in the superior mediastinum- Large in child and small in adults?
Most numerous lymphatic oragn. Helium, cortex, medulla, capsule and subcapsualr sinus?
Letting fluid in?
Fluid passage out?
Reasons for splenectomy?
Trauma and some anemias
Body's largest lymphatic organ- Located in the left hypochondric quadrant just below the diaphragm- Dorsolateral to the stomach? Largest in adults?
The body has three lines of defense aginst pathogens- the first two are _______ and the third is ______.
-External barriers- The skin
-Defensins- peptide that kills microbes
-Acid mantle- Lactic acid in sweat
-Hyaluronic acid in the dermis is difficult for microbes to cross
First line of defense
-Ingestion and phagocytosis
-Eosinophils- Kill parasites- Phagocytize and degrade antigen antibody complexes- promotes the action of basophils- limits the action of hestimine
-Basophils - secretes the vasodilator histomaine and anticoagulant heparin- speeds the delivery of leukocytes to the area of infection
Second line of defense
-Leukocytes and macrophages
Second line of defense
Specific defense- Immune system- not only does it defeat the pathogen but it leaves the body with memory of it enabling us to defeat it quickly in a subsequent encounter?
Third line of defense
___ Pharyngeal tonsil.
___ Palatine tonsils.
-In the circulating blood 85% T cells, 15% B cells and NK cells
-These are all important in immune surveillance and specific immunity
Emigrate to connective tissues and become macrophanges- all the body's macrophages system except for the leucocytes are called the macrophage system- includes dendritic cells, microglia, alveolar macrophages, heptic macrophages.
The complement system: A group of ____ globulins.
- A phenomenon in which the NK cells continually patrol the body "on the look out" for pathogens and diseased host cells.
- They attack and destroy bacteria, cells infected with viruses and cancer cells- also attacks cells of transplanted organs
Local defensive response to tissue injury
General purpose- Limits the spread of pathogens and destroy them- remove the debris of damaged tissue- initiate tissue repair
Four cardinal signs- Redness, swelling, heat and pain
Four cardinal signs?
Redness, swelling, heat and pain
-When the injury occurs cells damaged by the trauma, basophils and mast cells secrete histamine, kinins, and leukotrienes
-Endotheliel cells produce selectins which are cell adhesion molecules which cause the leukocytes to stick to the vessels walls
-Neutrophils recruit additional neutrophils and macrophages by secreting cytokines called colony stimulating factors
-This raises the blood neutrophil count
-Monocytes arrive within 8-12 hours of an injury- emigrate from bloodstream and turn into macrophages
-Macrophages engulf and destroy bacteria, damaged host cells, and dead and dying neutrophils
-Edema is part of the clean up- the lymphatics can remove bacteria and dead cells and tissue debris
Tissue Cleanup and repair
_______ & _______ cells secrete platelets derived growth factor- this stimulates fibroblasts to multiply and synthesize collagen- hyperemia delivers the oxygen and amino acids needed for protein synthesis- heat speeds metabolic rate and mitosis and tissue repair.
-When neutrophils and macrophages phagocytize bacteria they secrete a pyrogen called interleukin1 (IL-1) which stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete prostaglandin E- PGE raises the hypothalamic set point for temperature?
-Promotes interferon activity
-Elevates metabolic rate and accelerates tissue repair
-Inhibits reproduction of bacteria and viruses
benefits of fever
-Specific defense - third line of defense
- _____ or any anitobody mediated immunity
-Mediated by antibodies that do no directly destroy a pathogen, but tag them for destruction
-Immunity is effective aginst extracellular viruses, bacteria, yeast and protazoans and against molecular (non cellular) pathogens such as toxins, venoms and allergens
-Cellular immunity can sometimes work together
-Employs lymphocytes that directly attack and destroy foreign cells or diseased host cells - it is a means of ridding the body of pathogens that reside inside human cells where they are inaccessible to antibodies - Intracellular viruses and bacteria
-Immunity also acts against parasitic worms, cancer cells and transplanted tissue or organs
The production of one's own antibodies or T cells as a result of natural exposure to an antigen
Natural active immunity
The production of one's own antibodies of T cells as a result of a vaccination against diseases such as smallpox or tetanus with dead or attenuated pathogens which can stimulate an immune response but normally cause little or no discomfort or disease- In some cases periodic booster shots are given to restimulate immune memory?
Artificial active immunity
This is a temporary immunity that results from acquiring antibodies from another person- the only natural ways for this to happen is for a fetus to acquire antibodies