Biology Chapter 4 Review

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jnichox2
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262238
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Biology Chapter 4 Review
Updated:
2014-02-16 12:55:28
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Introduction Cell
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Introduction to the Cell
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  1. Prokaryotic Cells are...
    Simplest of the cells; they have no nucleus and few organelles. Most of these cells have a peptidoglycan cell wall.
  2. Eukaryotic Cells are...
    complex cells containing organelles. There are 2 types:

    Animal cells: No cell wall and pact with organelles

    Plant cells: contain a cell wall made of cellulose.
  3. The Three Basic Components of All Cells:
    • Plasma or Cell Membrane:
    • The membrane seperates the cell's internal environment from its external environment

    • Nucleus(Nucleoid Area in Bacteria)
    • Contains DNA

    • Cytoplasm:
    • Thick fluid; found inside cells but outside nucleus and dissolves chemicals within the cell and allows reactions to occur.
  4. Organelles
    specialized structures that have specific functions in a cell.
  5. The Nucleus...
    spherical or oval structure and largest structure in the cell
  6. Functions of the Nucleus
    1. central role in cellular reproduction

    2. Plays a part in determining the sort of differentiation a cell will undergo and the form it will take.

    3. controls the cells activity by directing protein synthesis
  7. Nuclear envelope...
    is a double membrane that controls the flow of materials into and out of the nucleus.
  8. Nucleoplasm
    gelatinous fluid within the nuclear envelope.
  9. Nucleolus or Nucleoli
    a structure in the nucleus where rRNA is synthesized.
  10. Chromosomes
    Rod-like bodies visible when the cell is undergoing division. They are composed of DNA and protein.
  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    a network in the cytoplasm of flattened sacs and tubules.
  12. Smooth ER
    • -lacks ribosomes
    • -synthesis of lipids, phospholipids, and sterols
    • -process drugs and alcohol
  13. Rough ER
    • -has ribosomes that cover the outer surface
    • -make more membranes
    • -associated with protein synthesis
  14. Ribosomes are...
    • -attached to the surface of ER and nuclear envelope
    • -found free in the cytoplasm
    • -found in mitochondria and chloroplast
  15. Function of Ribosomes
    Ribosomes make proteins for use in the cell and export. They interact with mRNA to build a protein
  16. The Golgi Complex
    Sometimes connected to the ER, is a system of sacs/vesicles arranged parallel to each other.
  17. Functions of the Golgi Complex
    1. Package and secrete proteins and lipids

    2. Modify substances

    3. Synthesize polysaccharides and combine these carbohydrates with proteins and lipids
  18. Mitochondria
    Spherical or rod-shaped organelles which have a double membrane. The outer membrane is smooth and the inner wall has inward folds.
  19. Cristae
    increase the membranes surface area so it can produce more ATP
  20. Function of the Mitochondria
    They carry out cellular respiration in nearly all eukaryotic cells, converting chemical energy from sugars in to chemical energy (ATP)
  21. Lysosomes
    a single membrane enclosed sac formed from the golgi complex.
  22. Function of Lysosomes
    -Contain digestive enzymes that can break down molecules and bacteria.

    -Foods w/food vacuoles and digest it and nutrients are released into cell fluid.
  23. Centrioles and Function
    Cylindrical structures located just outside the nucleus. They play role in eukaryotic cell division
  24. Microtubules and Functions
    • Long hollow cylindrical structures that...
    • -Guide movement of materials in the cell
    • - support (cytoskeleton)
  25. Microfilaments
    Thin or thick filaments arranged in a twisted double chain which are associated with movement ex. muscle cell contraction
  26. Intermediate Filaments
    Fibers made polypeptides; help strengthen the cytoskeleton and anchor certain organelles
  27. Cilia
    short hairlike structures that protrude from the membrane of certain cells. They serve to move substances.
  28. Flagellum
    long hairlike appendage that has a locomotor function.
  29. Microvilli
    Small finger shaped projections of the cell membrane; increase surface area for absorption
  30. Proteosomes
    Contain protein-digesting enzymes; remove and recycle damaged or denatured proteins
  31. Vacuole
    Help in the general maintenance of the cell. They serve to contain water, vital chemicals for metabolism, pigments, or poisons
  32. Chloroplasts
    structures that perform photosynthesis. Chloroplasts have a double membrane system.
  33. Grana
    stack of thylakoid sacs, they are the chloroplast's solar power packs where chlorophyll molecules trap solar energy
  34. Stroma
    fluid outside the compartment that contains chloroplast DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes.

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