Biology Chapter 4 Review
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Biology Chapter 4 Review
Introduction to the Cell
Prokaryotic Cells are...
Simplest of the cells; they have no nucleus and few organelles. Most of these cells have a peptidoglycan cell wall.
Eukaryotic Cells are...
complex cells containing organelles. There are 2 types:
Animal cells: No cell wall and pact with organelles
Plant cells: contain a cell wall made of cellulose.
The Three Basic Components of All Cells:
Plasma or Cell Membrane:
The membrane seperates the cell's internal environment from its external environment
Nucleus(Nucleoid Area in Bacteria)
Thick fluid; found inside cells but outside nucleus and dissolves chemicals within the cell and allows reactions to occur.
specialized structures that have specific functions in a cell.
spherical or oval structure and largest structure in the cell
Functions of the Nucleus
1. central role in cellular reproduction
2. Plays a part in determining the sort of differentiation a cell will undergo and the form it will take.
3. controls the cells activity by directing protein synthesis
is a double membrane that controls the flow of materials into and out of the nucleus.
gelatinous fluid within the nuclear envelope.
Nucleolus or Nucleoli
a structure in the nucleus where rRNA is synthesized.
Rod-like bodies visible when the cell is undergoing division. They are composed of DNA and protein.
a network in the cytoplasm of flattened sacs and tubules.
-synthesis of lipids, phospholipids, and sterols
-process drugs and alcohol
-has ribosomes that cover the outer surface
-make more membranes
-associated with protein synthesis
-attached to the surface of ER and nuclear envelope
-found free in the cytoplasm
-found in mitochondria and chloroplast
Function of Ribosomes
Ribosomes make proteins for use in the cell and export. They interact with mRNA to build a protein
The Golgi Complex
Sometimes connected to the ER, is a system of sacs/vesicles arranged parallel to each other.
Functions of the Golgi Complex
1. Package and secrete proteins and lipids
2. Modify substances
3. Synthesize polysaccharides and combine these carbohydrates with proteins and lipids
Spherical or rod-shaped organelles which have a double membrane. The outer membrane is smooth and the inner wall has inward folds.
increase the membranes surface area so it can produce more ATP
Function of the Mitochondria
They carry out cellular respiration in nearly all eukaryotic cells, converting chemical energy from sugars in to chemical energy (ATP)
a single membrane enclosed sac formed from the golgi complex.
Function of Lysosomes
-Contain digestive enzymes that can break down molecules and bacteria.
-Foods w/food vacuoles and digest it and nutrients are released into cell fluid.
Centrioles and Function
Cylindrical structures located just outside the nucleus. They play role in eukaryotic cell division
Microtubules and Functions
Long hollow cylindrical structures that...
-Guide movement of materials in the cell
- support (cytoskeleton)
Thin or thick filaments arranged in a twisted double chain which are associated with movement ex. muscle cell contraction
Fibers made polypeptides; help strengthen the cytoskeleton and anchor certain organelles
short hairlike structures that protrude from the membrane of certain cells. They serve to move substances.
long hairlike appendage that has a locomotor function.
Small finger shaped projections of the cell membrane; increase surface area for absorption
Contain protein-digesting enzymes; remove and recycle damaged or denatured proteins
Help in the general maintenance of the cell. They serve to contain water, vital chemicals for metabolism, pigments, or poisons
structures that perform photosynthesis. Chloroplasts have a double membrane system.
stack of thylakoid sacs, they are the chloroplast's solar power packs where chlorophyll molecules trap solar energy
fluid outside the compartment that contains chloroplast DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes.