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Compare and contrast benign and malignant tumors:
- Benign: do not metastasize, not usually lethal unless can cause local damage, encapsulated
- Malignant:metastasizes, lethal if left untreated, NOT encapsulated
List and describe 5 different methods of tissue sampling/biopsy.
- 1)Fine needle aspiration
- 2)core needle
- 3)dermal punch
- 4)fluid cytology(body secretions)
- 5) surgical biopsy
Define prophylactic cancer treatment:
- i.e. radiation to tumor bed, PCI, chemo used before mets
Compare and contrast hyperplasia, metaplasia, and anaplasia:
- hyperplasia=↑ # of cells (benign or malignnt
- metaplasia= replacement of cells by cells not normally present (malignant)
- anaplasia=loss of differentiation (malignant and benign)
Mortality rates are based on persons per ______population.
Any substance or gent that produces or incites cancer is called:
The seven warning signs include all the follwing except:
1)thickening or lump
4)change in bowel habits
The TNM staging system evaluates:(pick any or all)
a)the size and extent of tumor
b)whether the tumor has metastasized
c)the grade of the tumor
TNM does NOT evaluate GRADE!!
- a)the size and extent of tumor
- b)whether the tumor has metastasized
Malignant neoplasms that originate in the lymphoreticular tissues are called:
(don't be tricked into saying something like; lymphoreticuloma or lymphosarcoma :) )
When more than one cancer modality is used simultaneously, it is known as:
The cancer warning signal most likely indicating colon/rectal cancer is:
a change in bowel habits
Which cytotoxic drug may produce heart failure?
A tumor classified as T3, N2, MO is likely a stage:
The tissue of a malignant carcinoma is:
The method used to establish definitive malignancy is:
A malignant tissue of striated muscle is called a/n:
A surgical procedure in which an incision is made through the abdominal wall to examine lymph nodes to establish the extent of disease is called a/n:
- mock test answer is:
- exploratory laparotomy
The highest incidence of malignancy for adult males in the US occurs in the _____. For females it is the _______.
(overall male and female it's LUNG)
The most common side effect associated with cytotoxic drugs is:
Most cancers are: (sporadic/familial).
The removal of cells by scraping is called:
The____of a tumor is an evaluation of the degree of cellular differentiation.
According to B & T, factors that may influence the sensitivity of a group of cells to ionizing radiation is:(pick any or all)
2)time of cell division
4)Length of mitotic activity
- 1)mitotic activity
- 2)time of cell division (NO!!)
- 3)cellular differentiation
- 4)Length of mitotic activity
- Law of Bergonie and Tribondeau" states "the radiosensitivity of a tissue is directly proportional to the reproductive activity and
- inversely proportional to the degree of differentiation"
What difference would you expect to see between larngeal tumors classified as T2 and T4?
The T4 would be larger
One of the characteristics of benign tumors are that they are never fatal.
The term for transmission of disease from one original site to one or more sites elsewhere in the body is metastasis.
Oncogenes are also known as tumor- suppressor genes.
In general, children have the highest rates of cancer.
Surgery is never used prophylactically.
Which of the following is not a possible side effect of cytotoxic drugs:
5)None of the above
- None of the above
- (all are possible side effects of chemo)
The oldest cancer management modality is:
One of the unique characteristics of substitute ureas is:
They can cross the blood-brain barrier
The incidence of cancer in a given area may be affected by:
4)All of the above
All of the above
A tumor marker for detection of germ cell tumors is:
The ACS reccomends ______for men beginning at age 45.
Who is at greater risk for lung cancer: A person who has smoked 1 pack/day for the past year or someone who has smoked 1 pack/day for the past 25 years?
The longer exposure has more risk
surgical removal of prostate
surgical removal of breast and pecs
Modified radical mastectomy
removal of breast with fewer muscles than with radical
total removal of multiple organs
Prophylactic therapy is intended to:
sterilize areas of microscopic disease
Curative therapy is intended to:
totally eradicate disease
If cytotoxic drugs poison both normal and cancer cells, how is it that we continue using this modality and expect to treat cancer and return patient to a healthy state?
normal cells have the capacity for repair, cancer cells don't
Because both chemo and RT rely on adequate vascular supply, what is it's significance concerning the effectiveness of both modalities?
- Blood vessels re necessary to deliver chemo to tumor, and oxygen(delivered via blood through vasculature) sensitizes cancer cells to radiation.
- When tumors outgrow their blood supply, they become necrotic and much more difficult to treat.
When cure rates using systemic chemo and RT are similar for early stage cervix, glottic larynx, and BCC of he skin, why would RT be preferable?
For quality of life issues (it is less invasive-for instance with larynx: keeping the voice)
We generally report survival rates in 5 yr increments. Breast cancer survival rates are reported at a different time interval. What is it and why?
Survival is usually reported at 10 and 20 yrs because so much progress has been made in treating breast cancer but it still can come back after many years(not considered "cured" at 5 yrs out)
Most cytotoxic drugs cannot cross blood/brain barrier. Explain how certain drugs or combinations of drugs, unable to cross the barrier, are effectively used in the management of certain CNS malignancies today.
By LOCAL administration: direct injection into the tissue so that it does not need to cross the blood/brain barrier
Which of the following modalities, used alone, would best treat a patient with metastatic disease?
Hippocrates is credited with:
Identifying the disease we know as cancer
The youngest modality used in the treatment of cancer is:
The following is true regarding excisional biopsy:(pick any or all)
1)Involves a removal of a portion of the tumore
2)Generally appropriate for cure of a relatively small tumor
3)provides a definitive diagnosis
- 1)Involves a removal of a portion of the tumor
- 2)Generally appropriate for cure of a relatively small tumor
- 3)provides a definitive diagnosis
Possible routes for administration of chemo are:(pick any or all)
Actinomycin D is an:
Generally, a lesion classified T1 NO MO is a stage __:
Which of the following is not recognized as a carcinogen:
A patient receiving RT to the brain is expected to experience:
A likely symptom of testicular cancer is:
a painless lump
The most widely used staging system is known as the ____system.