Psychology Exam #1

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Psychology Exam #1
2014-02-17 13:19:14

Psychology Exam #1
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  1. Plato
    Nativism - certain kinds of knowledge are inborn or innate
  2. Aristotle
    Philosophical Empiricism - all knowledge is acquired through experience
  3. Wilhem Wundt
    Established first psychological laboratory in Leipzeg, Germany in 1879
  4. Introspection
    • Titchener engage people in self-reflective introspection
    • Looking inward
    • Reporting elements of one's experience
    • Unreliable because it required smart, verbal people & its results varied from person to person & experience to experience
  5. Functionalism
    Human thoughts, feelings, & behaviors and what function they might serve
  6. Sigmund Freud
    • Has influenced humanity's self-understanding
    • Psychoanalysis - our unconscious thought process & our emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behaviors
  7. Humanistic Psychology
    • Perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people & the individual's potential for personal growth
    • Ways that current environmental influences can nurture or limit our growth potential & the importance of having our needs for love & acceptance satisfied
  8. Industrial/Organizational Psychology
    The application of psychological concepts & methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
  9. Psychiatrists Vs. Psychologists
    • Psychiatrist = medical doctor first; they can prescribe medication
    • Psychologist = professionals in social work, counseling & marriage & family therapy
  10. Hindsight Bias
    Tendency to believe you would have foreseen an outcome
  11. Overconfidence
    Humans tend to think they know more than they do
  12. Case Studies
    Observation technique in which one individual is examined in depth in the hope of revealing things true of us all
  13. Surveys
    Asks people to report their behaviors or opinions
  14. Population
    All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn
  15. Naturalistic Observation
    • Records behavior in natural environments
    • Doesn't explain behavior, it describes it
  16. Correlation Coefficient
    Statistical measure of the relationship between two things
  17. Illusory Correlation
    Perceiving a relationship between variables even when no such relationship exists
  18. Experiaments
    Enable researchers to isolate the effects of one or more factors by manipulating the factors of interest & holding constant other factors
  19. Placebo
    • Effect = experimental results caused by expectations alone
    • Any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent
  20. Independent Variables
    Experimental factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied
  21. Dependent Variables
    Variable that may change in response to the manipulations of the independent variable
  22. Standard Deviation
    How much scores deviate from each other
  23. Normal Curve
    Symmetrical bell shaped curve
  24. Phrenology
    • Studying bumps on the skull
    • Franz Gall proposed phrenology could reveal a person's mental abilities & character traits
  25. Neurons
    • Nerve cells
    • Basic building block of the nervous system
    • Consist of cell body, dendrites, axon, myelin sheath & terminal branches of axon
  26. Dendrites
    A neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages & conduct impulses toward the cell body
  27. Axon
    The neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands
  28. Myelin Sheath
    A fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next
  29. Synapse
    Junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron & the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
  30. Reuptake
    A neurotransmitter's reabsorbtion by the sending neuron
  31. Acetylcholine
    • Enables muscle action, learning, & memory
    • ACh-producing neurons deteriorate (undersupply) = Alzheimer's disease
  32. Endorphins
    • "Morphine within"
    • Natural opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control & pleasure
  33. Dopamine
    • Influences movement, learning, attention, & emotion
    • Oversupply = Schizophrenia
    • Undersupply = tremors & decreased mobility in Parkinson's disease
  34. Serotonin
    • Affects mood, hunger, sleep, & arousal
    • Undersupply = depression
    • Some antidepressent drugs raise serotonin levels
  35. Sympathetic/Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
    • Sympathetic = the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
    • Parasympathetic = division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
  36. Hormones
    Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine systems or glands that travel through the blood stream & affect other tissues
  37. Pituitary Gland
    • Master gland
    • Secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands
  38. Thyroid
    Affects metabolism
  39. Parathyroid
    Helps regulate the level of calcium in the blood
  40. Hypothalamus
    Brain region controlling the pituitary gland
  41. Adrenal Glands
    Inner part helps trigger the "fight-or-flight" response
  42. Pancreas
    Regulates the level of sugar in the blood
  43. Testes/Ovaries
    Secretes male/female sex hormones
  44. EEG
    An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface
  45. MRI
    • Uses magnetic fields & radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue
    • Shows brain anatomy
  46. PET Scans
    Visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose gas goes while the brain performs a given task
  47. fMRI
    • Technique for revealing bloodflow & brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans
    • Shows brain function
  48. Corpus Callosum
    The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres & carrying messages between them
  49. Dual Processing
    Info is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious & unconscious tracks
  50. Selective Attention
    Focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
  51. Inattentional Blindness
    Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
  52. Circadian Rhythym
    • Biological clock
    • Regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24 hour cycle
  53. Sleep Stages & Brain Wave Patterns
    • Stage 1 = slow & irregular brain waves
    • Stage 2 = rapid, rhythmic brain waves
    • Stage 3 & 4 = large, slow brain waves
    • REM Sleep = brain waves are rapid & saw-toothed
  54. Insomnia
    Persistent problems in falling asleep
  55. Narcolepsy
    • Characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks
    • Sufferer lapses directly into REM sleep
  56. Sleep Apnea
    Characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep & repeated momentary awakenings
  57. Night Terrors
    • Characterized by high arousal & an appearance of being terrified
    • Occur during stage 3 sleep
  58. Manifest & Latent Content
    • Manifest = remembered story line of a dream
    • Latent = the underlying meaning of a dream
  59. Drugs & Neurotransmitters
    All drugs do their work at the synapses, stimulating, inhibiting, or mimicking the activity of the brain's own chemical messengers (neurotransmitters)
  60. Classification of Drugs
    • Depressants = drugs that reduce neural activity & slow body functions; alcohol, barbituates, opiates, endorphins
    • Stimulants = drugs that excite neural activity & speed up body functions; caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamines, ecstasy
    • Hallucinogens = psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions & evoke sensory images; LSD, marijuana
  61. LSD
    • Hallucinogen
    • AKA acid
    • Near death experiences
  62. Methamphetamines
    A powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the CNS, with speeded-up body functions & associated energy & mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
  63. Essay
    Psychology Perspectives & Subfields
    • Cognitive = How we encode, process, store, & retrieve info; clinical, counseling
    • Social-Cultural = How behavior & thinking vary across situations & cultures; developmental, social, clinical, counseling
    • Behavioral = How we learn observable responses; clinical, counseling
    • Neuroscience = How the body & brain enable emotions, memories, & sensory experiences; biological, cognitive, clinical
    • Psychodynamic = How behavior springs from unconscious drives & conflicts; clinical, counseling, personality
    • Behaviorist = How our genes & our environment influence our individual differences; clincal, counseling
    • Evolutionary = How the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes; biological, developmental, social
  64. Essay
    Aristotle, Plato, Descartes
    • Aristotle = Greek naturalist & philosopher; theorized about learning & memory, motivation & emotion, perception & personality; Philosophical Empiricism (all knowledge is acquired through experience)
    • Plato = Nativism (certain kinds of knowledge are inborn or innate)
    • Descartes = Dualism (mind & body are seperate entities that interact)
  65. Essay
    Experimental Design
  66. Essay
    Research Strategies in Psychology
  67. Essay
    Neurotransmitters - Role & Function
    • Neurotransmitters = chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons; when release by the sending neuron, they travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
    • Acetylcholine = enables muscle action, learning, & memory
    • Dopamine = influences movement, learning, attention, & emotion
    • Serotonin = affects mood, hunger, sleep, & arousal
    • Norepinephrine = helps control alertness & arousal
    • GABA = a major inhibitory neurotransmitter
    • Glutamate = a major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory
  68. Essay
    Endocrine System - Role & Function
    • Endocrince System = the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
    • Pituitary Gland = secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands
    • Thyroid = affects metabolism
    • Parathyroid = help regulate the level of calcium in the blood
    • Hypothalamus = brain region controlling the pituitary gland
    • Adrenal Glands = inner part helps trigger the "fight-or-flight" response
    • Pancreas = regulates the level of sugar in the blood
    • Testes/Ovaries = secretes male/female sex hormones
  69. Essay
    • Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
    • Worsened by fretting about one's insomnia
    • Typically people overestimate how long it takes them to fall asleep
    • Sleeping pills & alcohol can aggravate the problem, reducing REM sleep & leaving the person with next-day blahs
    • Natural sleep aids = exercise regularly but not late in the evening; avoid caffeine after early afternoon, & avoid food & drink near bedtime; relax before bedtime, using dimmer light; sleep on a regular schedule; hide the clock face; last resort, settle for less sleep
  70. Essay
    Classification of Drugs
    • Depressants = drugs such as alcohol, barbituates (tranquilizers), & opiates that calm neural activity & slow body functions; alcohol slows neural processing, memory disruption, reduced self-awareness & self-control, & expectancy effects; barbituates depress nervous system activity; opiates depress neural functioning
    • Stimulants = excites neural activity & speeds up body functions; pupils dilate, heart & breathing rates increase, & blood sugar levels rise, causing a drop in appetite (energy & self-confidence also rise); caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, & ecstasy
    • Hallucinogens = distort perceptions & evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input; LSD creates sensations similar to the near-death experience; Marijuana contains THC & is a mild hallucinogen amplifying sensitivity to colors, sounds, tastes & smells but also relaxes, disinhibits, & may produce a euphoric high