Chapter 7 The Skeleton

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Morgan_001
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262307
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Chapter 7 The Skeleton
Updated:
2014-02-22 18:04:27
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skeleton anatomy
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skeletal bones and markings
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  1. What does skeleton mean?
    dried up body
  2. What is a skeleton composed of?
    • bones
    • cartilage
    • joints 
    • ligaments
  3. Your skeleton accounts for approximately __% of your body mass.
    20
  4. What are the 2 major divisions of the skeleton?
    • axial 
    • appendicular
  5. What bones does the axial skeleton include?
    • skull
    • bones associated with skull
    • vertebral column
    • thoracic cage
  6. What bones does the appendicular skeleton include?
    • pectoral and pelvic girdles
    • upper and lower limbs
  7. The ___________ skeleton forms the longitudinal axis of the body.
    axial
  8. How many bones are in the axial skeleton?
    80
  9. The axial skeleton contains about __% of the bones in your body.
    40
  10. The axial skeleton functions to support and protect:
    • brain
    • spinal cord 
    • organs of the ventral body cavity
  11. The _________ skeleton provides surface for muscle attachments.
    axial
  12. Which bone protects the brain and entrances to the body?
    skull
  13. The skull contains __ bones:
    __ form cranium
    __ facial bones
    • 22
    • 8
    • 14
  14. What are the 7 additional bones that are associated with the skull?
    • 6 auditory ossicles  (within temporal bone)
    • hyoid bone
  15. What are the 8 cranial bones?
    • occipital
    • frontal
    • sphenoid 
    • 2 parietal 
    • 2 temporal
  16. Which of the 8 cranial bones make up the roof of the skull?
    • occipital
    • frontal
    • 2 parietal
    • 2 temporal
  17. What is the function of the facial bones?
    protects and support entrance to body
  18. What are the 14 facial bones?
    • 2 maxillae 
    • 2 zygomatics
    • 2 nasals 
    • 2 lacrimals 
    • 2 palatines 
    • 2 inferior nasal chonchae 
    • mandible 
    • vomer
  19. What are sinuses?
    air filled spaces
  20. What are the 2 major functions of sinuses?
    • reduce weight of bone
    • mucous membrane moistens and cleanse air
  21. What are the 5 paranasal sinuses?
    • sphenoid
    • ethmoid
    • frontal
    • palatine
    • maxilla
  22. What are the 4 major sutures?
    • lambdoid 
    • coronal
    • sagittal
    • squamous
  23. Lambdoid Suture
    joint between the parietal and occipital bones
  24. Coronal suture
    joint between the parietal and frontal bones
  25. Saggital suture
    joint between the parietal bones
  26. Squamous suture
    joint between the parietal and temporal bones
  27. What are the 26 irregular bones in your vertebral column?
    • 7 cervical vertebrae 
    • 12 thoracic vertebrae 
    • 5 lumbar vertebrae 
    • sacrum
    • coccyx
  28. foramen magnum
    ???
  29. 2 Primary Spinal Curves
    • accommodation curves
    • accommodate viscera
    • thoracic 
    • sacral 
    • formed before birth
  30. 2 Secondary Spinal Curves
    • compensation curves
    • cervical
    • lumbar 
    • formed after birth
  31. What are the 2 major supporting ligaments?
    • Anterior and Posterior Longitudinal Ligaments 
    • Ligamentum Flavum
  32. Intervertebral discs are pads of _____________.
    fibrocartilage
  33. What are the 2 parts of intervertebral discs?
    • nucleus pulposus 
    • anulus fibrosus
  34. What are the 3 basic parts that each vertebrae has?
    • 1. Vertebral body
    • 2. Vertebral arch
    • 3. Articular processes
  35. What are the 5 different regions formed by the vertebral column?
    • 1. Cervical (C)
    • 2. Thoracic (T)
    • 3. Lumbar (L)
    • 4. Sacral (S)
    • 5. Coccygeal (Co)
  36. Which vertebral region:
    most mammals have 7
    large relative size of vertebral foramen
    transverse process fused with costal process
    notched spinous process
    Cervical
  37. What is a bifid?
    notched spinous process
  38. Which vertebral region describes C3-C6?
    Cervical
  39. Which specific vertebrae:
    named after the Greek myth
    allows nodding "yes"
    articulates with occipital condyles
    lacks body and spinous process
    large round vertebral foramen 
    carries the skull
    Atlas
  40. C1
    Atlas
  41. Which specific vertebrae:
    dens or odontoid process 
    transverse ligament 
    more normal cervical shape
    allows you to move your head from side to side
    Axis
  42. C2
    Axis
  43. Which specific vertebrae:
    closely resembles T1
    has long, slender spinous process
    ends in broad tubercle 
    can be felt in neck
    Vertebra Prominens
  44. C7
    Vertebra prominens
  45. What part of the vertebra prominens can be felt at your neck?
    the tubercle
  46. Which vertebrae:
    heart shaped body
    long, slender spinous process
    articulations for ribs
    Thoracic
  47. Which vertebrae:
    largest
    no costal facets 
    transverse processes project dorsolaterally 
    stumpy spinous process projects dorsally
    inferior articular processes face laterally
    experience the most pressure
    Lumbar
  48. Fused components of 5 vertebrae make up the
    sacrum
  49. The sacrum is completely fused at age __-__
    25-30
  50. Which organs does the sacrum protect?
    • reproductive
    • digestive
    • urinary
  51. sacral canal
    nerves and membranes of vertebral canal continue
  52. Coccyx
    • made up of 3-5 (typically 4) vertebrae 
    • begin fusing by age 26
    • don't completely fuse until late adulthood 
    • may fuse with sacrum in old age
  53. The coccyx provides attachments for:
    • ligaments 
    • a muscle that constrict the anal opening
  54. The skeleton of the chest consists of:
    • thoracic vertebrae 
    • pairs of ribs 
    • sternum
  55. The thoracic cage serves 2 functions:
    • 1. protects thoracic cavity
    • 2. attachment for muscles (respiration, vertebral positioning, movement of upper limbs)
  56. What type of bone is the sternum or breastbone?
    flat bone
  57. What bone is the anterior midline of the thoracic wall?
    sternum
  58. What are the 3 components of the sternum?
    • 1. Manubrium
    • 2. body
    • 3. xyphoid process
  59. How many rib pairs are attached to the manubrium?
    1
  60. How many rib pairs are attached to the body of the sternum?
    2-7
  61. How many rib pairs are attached to the xyphoid process?
    none, only muscles
  62. How many rib pairs are attached to costal cartilages?
    8-10
  63. Which pairs of ribs are floating?
    11 and 12
  64. What are vertebrosternal ribs?
    • true ribs 
    • ribs 1-7
  65. What are vertebrochondral ribs?
    • false ribs
    • ribs 8-10
  66. What are vertebral ribs?
    • floating ribs
    • 11-12
  67. What are the 4 main parts of a typical rib?
    • 1. Head
    • 2. Neck
    • 3. Tubercle 
    • 4. Body
  68. Ribs 2-9 articulate with __ vertebral bodies.
    2
  69. Ribs 1 & 10 articulate with __ vertebra at __ points.
    1; 2
  70. Ribs 11 & 12 articulate with __ vertebra at __ point(s)
    1; 1
  71. How many bones are in the appendicular skeleton?
    126
  72. What percent of named bones does the appendicular skeleton make up?
    approximately 60%
  73. What are the 2 girdles in the appendicular skeleton?
    • 1. pectoral girdle
    • 2. pelvic girdle
  74. The pectoral girdle includes..
    • clavicle 
    • scapula
  75. What are the functions of the bones in the pectoral girdle?
    • position shoulder joints 
    • help move upper limbs 
    • provide attachments
  76. Acromion
    the point of your shoulder
  77. What are the 3 borders of the scapula?
    • 1. superior 
    • 2. medial (vertebral)
    • 3. lateral (axillary)
  78. Which bone does the scapula articulate with?
    humorous
  79. How many bones are in the brachium?
    1 (humorous)
  80. Which bone in the antebrachium is medial?
    Ulna
  81. Which bone in the antebrachium is lateral?
    Radius
  82. What bones are included in the pelvic girdle?
    • coxae 
    • sacrum 
    • coccyx
  83. How is the pelvic girdle divided?
    • False (greater)
    • True (lesser)
  84. What 3 bones fuse to make the coxae?
    • 1. ilium 
    • 2. ischium 
    • 3. pubis
  85. Which bone articulates with the sacrum?
    ilium
  86. Where do all 3 bones of the coxae meet?
    in the acetabulum
  87. How many carpal bones are there?
    8
  88. What are the 4 proximal carpals?
    scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform
  89. What are the 4 distal carpals?
    trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
  90. How do you count the metacarpals?
    with roman numerals starting laterally
  91. How many bones are in the tarsus?
    7
  92. What are the 7 bones of the tarsus?
    • talus
    • calcaneus 
    • cuboid 
    • navicular
    • medial cuneiform 
    • intermediate cuneiform 
    • lateral cuneiform
  93. Which is the longest and heaviest bone in the body?
    femur
  94. What are the 2 arches in the foot?
    • 1. longitudinal arch (medial and lateral) 
    • 2. transverse arch
  95. Which arch in the foot contains the ligaments and tendons that connect the calcaneus to distal portions of metatarsals?
    longitudinal
  96. Which arch in the foot changes in curvature from medial to lateral?
    transverse

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