Comparative Anatomy Test 1

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Comparative Anatomy Test 1
2014-02-18 00:09:58
comparative anatomy test

A list of definitions and concepts for a first Comparative Anatomy test.
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  1. What is comparative vertebrate anatomy?
    • The study of the functional morphology of the vertebrates 
    • Compares body form & functionof various strucutres 
    • Compares the similarities & differences in morphology among organism 
    • Interprets similarities & differences in form within the contexts of ancestry, function, & evolution
  2. What is the adaption paradigm?
    An organism adapt to its environment with limitations from its ancestors.
  3. Evolution
    • Changes in gene frequency of a population through time 
    • Change in the character states of organisms through time 
    • Requires genetic variability - difference in the ability to survive and reproduce being linked to differences in heritable genetic variation
  4. Natural Selection
    • Differential reproduction & survival of organisms with certain character states or genotypes. 
    • It is NOT survival of the fittest as the term "fittest" is typically thought of.
  5. How does natural selection occur?
    • More offspring are produced than can survive each generation. 
    • Population size exceeds the environment's carrying capacity 
    • A critcial resource becomes limiting. 
    • Competition occurs 
    • Additive genetic variation in competitive ability exists 
    • Best competitors survive & reproduce 
    • Results in an increase in the frequency of the traits that increased fitness in the next question 
    • If the frequency of a given chracter state changes: It's natural selection in the current generation and evolution in the next generation.
  6. What is adaptation?
    • Adaptation is a process of population becoming adjusted to a particular environment over many generations. 
    • An adaptive trait is a structure, a physiological mechanism, behavior that increases the probability that an organism will survive to reproduce.
  7. What are the kinds/types of selection?
    • Natural selection - Differential survival of certain genotypes or phenotypes 
    • Artificial selection - Differential breeding of organisms with certain desirable traits by humans 
    • Sexual selection - Differential mating success
  8. What are the forms of selection?
    • Directional selection - Selects for an extreme phenotype at one end of the distribution; Mean, Median, & Mode all change; Standard deviation may increase, decrease, or remain the same. 
    • Stabilizing selection - Tends to eliminate individuals at each end of the distribution; Mean, Median & Mode are stationary; Standard deviation decreases 
    • Disruptive selection - Eliminates individuals with the mean character state, and selects for the two extreme forms; Mean may remain the same; Bimodal; Standard deviation increases; Gives rise to speciation
  9. What is the evidence for evolution?
    • Artificial selection 
    • Embryology 
    • Molecular similarities 
    • Fossil record 
    • Biogeography 
    • Comparative anatomy
  10. What is a species?
    A group of interbreeding or potentially interbreeding organisms that are reproductively isolated from other similar organisms
  11. What is allopatric speciation?
    • Generating new species in different geographic locations 
    • Barriers arise that separate gene pools 
    • No gene flow between gene pools 
    • Differential selection, genetic dirft, & mutation within the different populations 
    • Barriers removed 
    • Two populations come in secondary contact 
    • Reproductive isolation
  12. What is parapatric speciation?
    When organisms of the same species are not separated by a physical barrier, but sexual selection basically causes speciation.
  13. What is some characteristics of the phylum Chordata?
    • Dorsal Notochord 
    • Dorsal tubular nerve cord 
    • Pharyngeal gill slits
    • Ventral Heart or Aorta 
    • Tend to have some degree of cephalization & a post-anal tail
  14. What are some characteristics of the superclass Agnatha?
    • Have a head with a brain & paired light sensitive organs "eyes" 
    • Large persistent notochord 
    • Two semicircular canals in each ear 
    • Soft skin no scales 
    • Two chambered heart (1 atrium, 1 ventricle) 
    • External fertilization
  15. What are some characteristics of the class Myxini, or the hagfishes?
    • 200 slime glands - slime is used for protection; slime absorbs water and covers the gills of predators 
    • Degenerate eyes 
    • Large tentacles around terminal nasal opening and mouth
    • Marine only 
    • No larval stage 
    • 5-15 of pouched gills 
    • Poorly-developed cartilaginous skeleton 
    • Multiple contractile vessels 
    • Live in soft mud bottoms 25-600 m in depth, found up to 1000 m 
    • Burrow in the mud 
    • Live in cold water 
    • Eat a variety of foods 
    • Lay 20-30 yolky eggs 
    • Size is 20-70 mm 
    • Six genera & over 60 species
  16. What are some characteristics of the class Cephalaspidomorhl or lamprey?
    • 5 genera & 41 species 
    • Eel-like 
    • Lateral eyes 
    • Ventral mouth with horny teeth 
    • Poorly developed cartilaginous skeleton but has well developed skull and branchial region 
    • Vertebrae lack centra but have rudimentary neural arches 
    • Dorsal and caudal fins are present by not pectoral and pelvic fins 
    • Lack a lateral septum so the are no epaxial or hypaxial muscles 
    • Gills open into a respiratory tube that ends at the 7th arch 
    • May be more closely related to bony fish than hagfish or sharks 
    • Long larval stage, 5 years 
    • Filter feed as larvae 
    • Two feeding types as adult - parasitic and nonparasitic

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