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Water has an abnormally high boiling point due to intermolecular ___.
H-bonding is between H and ___.
3 types of non-covalent bonding
- ionic interaction
- h bonding
- van der wall forces
ionic interactions sometime result in ___, particularly in the absence of water which normally hydrates ions.
ionic salt bridges
__ number hydrogen bonding attractions are possible per molecule
Hydrophobic interactions ___.
The water molecules form a “cage” around the small hydrophobic droplets
Liquid water has a high ___.
- Heat of vaporization
- Heat capacity
Ions are hydrated by water molecules. The water molecules orient so the opposite charge end points to the ion to partially neutralize charge. The shell of water molecules is a ____.
Amphipathic molecules contain ___. Ex)
both polar and non-polar groups. Ionized fatty acids
charged head facing outward to the water and the nonpolar tail part inside
Sol-Gel Transitions explain
- The cytosol contains a high density of polymers and is therefore likely to exist in a gelatinous state, depending on various conditions
- amoeba to drive movement.
Osmotic Pressure is a ___ process in which solvent molecules pass through a semipermeable membrane from a solution of ___ solute concentration to a solution of ___ solute concentration.
Spontaneous, lower, higher
another term for shrink due to osmosis
another term for burst due to osmosis
[H3O+][OH-] = 10^-14
Acid is __. and Base is ___.
proton donor, proton acceptor.
___ Ka and ___ pKa values indicate stronger acids.
What is a titration?
It is a process in which carefully measured volumes of a base are added to a solution of an acid in order to determine the acid concentration.
equivalence point :
- When chemically equal (equivalent) amounts of acid and base are present during a titration
- only the salt is present in solution
inflection point :
- equal moles of salt and acid are present in solution
- Thus pH = pKa
To a buffer solution, if strong acid is added, ___, if strong base is added, ___.
- it will react with the conjugate base and form more acid.
- it will react with the acid to form more conjugate base.
Maximum buffer effect occurs at the ___ for an acid.
high concentrations of acid and conjugate base give a high ___
within cells, the primary buffer is the ___ buffer.
the primary blood buffer is the ___ system.
- compound with both + and - charges.
- they are less likely to cause complications with biochemical reactions.
- pH < 7.35
- Depression of respiratory rate causes increase in carbon dioxide in blood, leading to lowered pH
- pH > 7.45
- Hyperventilation causes a decrease in carbon dioxide in blood, leading to higher pH