Endocrine Notes

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Author:
Jyn1983
ID:
262327
Filename:
Endocrine Notes
Updated:
2014-02-17 22:28:32
Tags:
Endocrine
Folders:
BIO 139
Description:
endocrine
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  1. releases a substance, called a hormone, into the blood; have specific target cells; (ex: pancreas: insulin)
    Endocrine Organ
  2. Releases a substance through a duct directly into another organ (ex: enzymes: and digestive juices)
    Exocrine Organ
  3. release a hormone into the blood that works/ acts on a distant target (i.e. Anterior Pituitary gland- releases prolactin which travels through blood to the mammary glands to cause milk production); most common endocrine organ
    Holocrine Organs
  4. release a hormone into the blood that works/acts on a neighbor target cell.  (i.e. the lining of the blood vessel releases nitric oxide into the blood which acts on the smooth muscle of the same blood vessel to vasodilate)
    Paracrine Organs
  5. release a hormone into the blood that works/acts on the same cell that released it. (i.e. Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas release the hormone somatostatin that acts on the Islets of Langerhans to decrease insulin production
    Autocrine Organs
  6. What are the 4 types of Hormones?
    • Protein Hormones
    • Steroid Hormones
    • Biogenic Amine Hormones
    • Eicosanoids
  7. Protein hormones
    • made of chains of amino acids
    • soluble in water
    • have membrane receptors; outside the cell
    • have specific target cells
    • most hormones are protein hormones
    • require 2nd messengers to act on the cell
  8. Steroid Hormones
    • made from cholesterol
    • insoluble in water
    • have receptors inside the cell(in cytoplasm or nucleus
    • do not use/require 2nd messengers to act on the cell
    • have specific target cells
    • 5 hormones are steroid hormones
  9. name the five steroid hormones
    • aldosterone
    • progesterone
    • estrogen
    • cortisol
    • testosterone
  10. Biogenic Amine Hormones
    • made from only 1 amino acid
    • soluble in water
    • have receptors outside the cell; except for the thyroid hormones
    • have specific target cells
    • Adrenal Medulla- epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • Thyroid Hormones- T3 and T4- receptor inside the cell
  11. Eicosanoids
    • made from one fatty acid (fats)
    • Insoluble in water
    • have receptors inside the cell
    • do not use/require 2nd messengers
    • have specific target cells
    • there are two types
  12. What are the two types of Eicosanoids?
    • Prostaglandins
    • Leukotrienes
  13. type of Eicosanoid that are named with capital letters and Control Pain response
    Prostaglandins
  14. type of Eicosanoid that are named with Roman Numerals and made by WBC for defense functions
    Leukotrienes
  15. what refers to the way that hormones act on or affect their target cell
    Hormone Mechanism of action
  16. Protein hormone mechanism of action
    • Step 1: Protein Hormone (PH) travels to the blood until it reaches its target cell
    • Step 2: PH binds to the Protein Hormone receptor(PHR) on the outside of the cell membrane
    • Step 3: PH binding to PHR activates the formation of a second messenger inside the cell
    • Step 4: The second messenger moves into the nucleus to bind to DNA
    • Step 5: 2nd messenger binding to DNA activates DNA to cause a change in cell metabolism
  17. Steroid Hormone mechanism of action
    • Step 1: Steroid Hormone (SH) travels in the blood until it reaches its target cells
    • Step 2: SH moves through the cell membrane and binds to the Steroid Hormone Receptor (SHR) inside the cell in the cytoplasm or nucleus.
    • Step 3: The SH-SHR complex (formed from SH binding to SHR) moves into the nucleus to bind to DNA
    • Step 4: The SH-SHR complex binding to DNA activates the DNA to cause a change in cell metabolism
  18. Changes in cell metabolism may refer to:
    (protein synthesis)
    • causing the cell to make new proteins
    • causing the cell to stop making proteins
    • increase or decrease production of a protein already made
  19. What are the 5 types of actions of Hormones at their target cells?
    • Direct
    • Inhibitory
    • Permissive
    • Synergistic
    • Antagonistic
  20. What type of action occurs when the hormone changes all function?
    Direct
  21. What type of action occurs when the hormones decrease or stops cell function?
    Inhibitory
  22. What type of action occurs when 1 hormone is needed to allow another hormone to work?
    Permissive
  23. What type of action occurs when two hormones work together to increase the cell's response?
    Synergistic
  24. What type of action occurs when two hormones have the opposite actions on the same cell?
    Antagonistic
  25. A change in one of the body conditions that causes a response to return the condition to the normal set point? (occurs in opposite direction)
    Negative Feedback
  26. A change in one of the body conditions that causes a response to increase the change away from the normal set point?  (occurs in the same direction)
    Positive Feedback
  27. What is the special Gland of the body that is connected to the hypothalamus?
    Pituitary Gland
  28. What are the 6 Protein hormones that the Anterior Pituitary release?
    • Growth Hormone (GH)
    • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    • Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)
    • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
    • Prolactin
  29. What 2 hormones are released by the Posterior Pituitary?
    • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • Oxytocin
  30. What gland is located in the neck covering the voicebox (larynx)?
    Thyroid Gland
  31. What are the three layers of the adrenal cortex?
    • Zona glomerulosa
    • Zona Fasciculate
    • Zona Reticularis
  32. What part of the Adrenal Gland is made of nervous tissue; activated with sympathetic nervous system as part of "fight or flight" response?
    Adrenal medulla
  33. What 2 biogenic amine hormones are released by the Adrenal medulla?
    Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
  34. What is the Endocrine portion of the kidney?
    Juxtaglomerular apparatus
  35. Which hormone is released by the posterior pituitary to cause uttering contractions with labor?
    oxytocin
  36. Insulin is an antagonistic hormone to what other hormone?
    glucagon
  37. Which adrenal cortex hormone helps to control sodium ion levels?
    aldosterone

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