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Value in ztable
area under the curve to the left

Random Variables: mean
 Die:
 1(1/6) + 2(1/6) … 6(1/6) = 3.4

Random Variables: Variance
 Die:
 (13.4)^{2}/6 + (23.4)2/6 … + (63.4)2/6 = 2.916

Binomial
 "exactly 'y' successes in 'n' trials"
 Pr(Y=y) (n choose y)*p^{y}(1p)^{ny}

Zvalue calculation
Z = (Ymean)/ SD


outliers in both directions

 Skewed left
 outliers left (more bigger)

 Skewed right
 outliers right (more smaller)

Pˆ
 Sample probability
 Y/n
 Pr(Y/n = p*) = Pr(Y= np*)
 linear transformation of Y

if n increases
 less standard deviation and will reflect reality
 decreases by a factor of n/√n

