Chem Lecture 1

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RDURU1
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262409
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Chem Lecture 1
Updated:
2014-02-24 21:51:06
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mcat chem
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intro level chem stuff
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  1. All mass consists of tiny particles called
    atoms
  2. each atom is composed of a _____ surrounded by one or more electrons.
    nucleus
  3. Each nucleus contains ______ and ________ and is surrounded by ________
    protons, neutrons, electrons
  4. These are the building blocks of all compounds. They cannot be decomposed into simpler substances.
    Elements
  5. The number of protons plus the number of neutrons equal
    mass number
  6. the number of protons is the _________
    atomic number
  7. Two or more atoms of the same element that has the same atomic number (# of protons) but different number of neutrons.
    C-12, C-13, C-14
    Isotopes
  8. 6.022 x 10^23
    Avogadro's number
  9. 6.022 x 10^23 amu = ___ gram(s)
    1 gram
  10. grams/moles =
    molar mass, atomic weight or molecular weight
  11. This table list the elements from left to right in order of their atomic number.
    periodic table
  12. Each horizontal row in a periodic table is called
    period
  13. the vertical columns are called
    families or groups
  14. These large atoms tend to lose electrons to form positive ions and positive oxidation states. Their character includes ductility (easily stretched), malleability (easily hammered into thin strips), thermal and electrical conductivity and a characteristic luster.
    metals
  15. these atoms have diverse appearances and chemical behavior. they usually have lower melting points than metals. they form negative ions.
    nonmetals
  16. these atoms have some characteristics that resemble metals and some that resembles nonmetals
    Metalloids
  17. Noble gases are nonreactive and are sometimes called
    inert gases
  18. The amount of charge felt by the second electron is __________.
    effective nuclear charge (Zeff)
  19. These periodic trend increases from left to right and increases from the bottom to the top.
    electronegativity, electron affinity, and Ionization energy
  20. These periodic trend decrease from left to right and decrease from the bottom to the top.
    • Atomic radius
    • Metallic Character
  21. The energy necessary to detach an electron from a neutral atom is __________
    The energy necessary to detach a second electron from form the same atom is ____________
    • First Ionization energy
    • Second ionization energy
  22. The tendency of an atom to attract an electron in a bond that it shares with another atom. Highest is fluorine at 4.0
    least is Cesium at 0.79
    Electronegativity
  23. This is the willingness of an atom to accept an additional electron
    electron affinity
  24. What are the name of the units for the following physical quantities: mass, length, time, electric current, temperature, luminous intensity, amount of a substance.
    kilogram (kg), meter (m), second (s), ampere (A), kelvin (K), candela (cd), mole (mol)
  25. What is the abbreviation and meaning for the following prefix: mega-, kilo-, deci-, centi-, milli-, micro-, nano-, pico-, femto-
    M 106, k 103, d 10-1, c 10-2, m 10-3, 10-6, n 10-9, p 10-12, f 10-15
  26. type of bond where two electrons are shared by two nuclei.
    covalent bond
  27. this is defined as the point where the energy level is the lowest
    bond length
  28. the energy necessary to achieve a complete separation
    the bond dissociation energy
  29. A substance made from two or more elements in definite proportions
    a compound
  30. a ratio of whole numbers showing the relative number of atoms of one element to another

    ex: glucose is CH2O
    empirical formula
  31. in molecular compounds, groups of atoms form repeated, separate and distince units called _____________
    molecules
  32. in molecular compounds, the exact number of elemental atoms in each molecule can be represented by a _________
    ex: glucose is C6H12O6
    molecular formula
  33. compound that consist of cations and anions
    ionic compound
  34. when a compound undergoes a reaction and maintains its molecular structure and this its identity
    physical reaction
  35. when a compound undergoes a reaction and changes its molecular structure to form a new compound
    chemical reaction
  36. It is said that a reaction did this when it moves to the right wntil the supply if ar least one of the reactants is depleted.
    runs to completion
  37. The reactant that runs out first in a chemical reaction is known as
    the limiting reagent
  38. The amount of product produced when a reaction runs to completion. It will always be higher than the actual yield
    theoretical yield
  39. what is the formula for percent yield?
    (actual yield)/(theoretical yield) x 100=%yield
  40. Name the following equations:
    A + B -> C
    C -> A + B
    A + BC -> B + AC
    AB + CD -> AD + CB
    • COMBINATION
    • DECOMPOSTION
    • SINGLE DISPLACEMENT
    • DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT
  41. name the three type of solids
    crystalline, amorphous, and polymers
  42. the first quantum number is known as ____.
    principal quantum number (n)
  43. the outermost electrons of an atom. Typically, but not always, these electrons are s and p subshells
    valence electrons
  44. this is known as the second quantum number.
    It designate the subshells: 0=s, 1=p,2=d, 3=f,
    n-1= this
    azimuthal quantum number (l)
  45. the third quantum number is know as __________. It is designates the precise orbital of a given subshell. -l to +l = this
    Magnetic quantum number (ml)
  46. The fourth quantum number is ______. Its values include -1/2 or +1/2
    electron spin quantum number, ms
  47. This principle says that no two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum number
    The Pauli exclusion principle
  48. This principle states that with each new proton added to create a new element, a new electron is added as well.
    Aufbau principle
  49. This rule states that electrons will not fill any orbital in the same subshell until all orbitals in that subshell contain at least one electron and the unpaired have the same spin
    Hund's rule
  50. delta E = hf
    h = plank's constant
    what is the value of plank's constant?
    6.6 x 10-34 J*s

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