each atom is composed of a _____ surrounded by one or more electrons.
Each nucleus contains ______ and ________ and is surrounded by ________
protons, neutrons, electrons
These are the building blocks of all compounds. They cannot be decomposed into simpler substances.
The number of protons plus the number of neutrons equal
the number of protons is the _________
Two or more atoms of the same element that has the same atomic number (# of protons) but different number of neutrons.
C-12, C-13, C-14
6.022 x 10^23
6.022 x 10^23 amu = ___ gram(s)
molar mass, atomic weight or molecular weight
This table list the elements from left to right in order of their atomic number.
Each horizontal row in a periodic table is called
the vertical columns are called
families or groups
These large atoms tend to lose electrons to form positive ions and positive oxidation states. Their character includes ductility (easily stretched), malleability (easily hammered into thin strips), thermal and electrical conductivity and a characteristic luster.
these atoms have diverse appearances and chemical behavior. they usually have lower melting points than metals. they form negative ions.
these atoms have some characteristics that resemble metals and some that resembles nonmetals
Noble gases are nonreactive and are sometimes called
The amount of charge felt by the second electron is __________.
effective nuclear charge (Zeff)
These periodic trend increases from left to right and increases from the bottom to the top.
electronegativity, electron affinity, and Ionization energy
These periodic trend decrease from left to right and decrease from the bottom to the top.
The energy necessary to detach an electron from a neutral atom is __________
The energy necessary to detach a second electron from form the same atom is ____________
First Ionization energy
Second ionization energy
The tendency of an atom to attract an electron in a bond that it shares with another atom. Highest is fluorine at 4.0
least is Cesium at 0.79
This is the willingness of an atom to accept an additional electron
What are the name of the units for the following physical quantities: mass, length, time, electric current, temperature, luminous intensity, amount of a substance.
kilogram (kg), meter (m), second (s), ampere (A), kelvin (K), candela (cd), mole (mol)
What is the abbreviation and meaning for the following prefix: mega-, kilo-, deci-, centi-, milli-, micro-, nano-, pico-, femto-
M 106, k 103, d 10-1, c 10-2, m 10-3, 10-6, n 10-9, p 10-12, f 10-15
type of bond where two electrons are shared by two nuclei.
this is defined as the point where the energy level is the lowest
the energy necessary to achieve a complete separation
the bond dissociation energy
A substance made from two or more elements in definite proportions
a ratio of whole numbers showing the relative number of atoms of one element to another
ex: glucose is CH2O
in molecular compounds, groups of atoms form repeated, separate and distince units called _____________
in molecular compounds, the exact number of elemental atoms in each molecule can be represented by a _________
ex: glucose is C6H12O6
compound that consist of cations and anions
when a compound undergoes a reaction and maintains its molecular structure and this its identity
when a compound undergoes a reaction and changes its molecular structure to form a new compound
It is said that a reaction did this when it moves to the right wntil the supply if ar least one of the reactants is depleted.
runs to completion
The reactant that runs out first in a chemical reaction is known as
the limiting reagent
The amount of product produced when a reaction runs to completion. It will always be higher than the actual yield
what is the formula for percent yield?
(actual yield)/(theoretical yield) x 100=%yield
Name the following equations:
A + B -> C
C -> A + B
A + BC -> B + AC
AB + CD -> AD + CB
name the three type of solids
crystalline, amorphous, and polymers
the first quantum number is known as ____.
principal quantum number (n)
the outermost electrons of an atom. Typically, but not always, these electrons are s and p subshells
this is known as the second quantum number.
It designate the subshells: 0=s, 1=p,2=d, 3=f,
azimuthal quantum number (l)
the third quantum number is know as __________. It is designates the precise orbital of a given subshell. -l to +l = this
Magnetic quantum number (ml)
The fourth quantum number is ______. Its values include -1/2 or +1/2
electron spin quantum number, ms
This principle says that no two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum number
The Pauli exclusion principle
This principle states that with each new proton added to create a new element, a new electron is added as well.
This rule states that electrons will not fill any orbital in the same subshell until all orbitals in that subshell contain at least one electron and the unpaired have the same spin
delta E = hf
h = plank's constant
what is the value of plank's constant?