Ch. 4 b The Cell Cycle (Mitosis)
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What are the two main phases of the cell life cycle?
- The mitotic phase (cell division activity) and the interphase (all the other cell life activity and division preparation)
Interphase subphases: What is the first subphase and what is happening during this time?
Gap 1 (G1): Cell is metabolically active, synthesizing proteins and growing vigorously. As this ends centrioles start to replicate in preparation for cell division
Interphase subphases: What is the second subphase and what happens during this time?
Synthesis phase (S phase): The cell being created will need an exact copy of the DNA. This is when that DNA is replicated (synthesized). At the end of this phase there will be twice the number of chromosomes in a cell, 92 compared to the regular 46 (23 pairs).
Interphase subphases: What is the third and last subphase and what happens during this time?
Gap 2 (G2): enzymes and proteins needed for cell division are synthesized and moved to proper sites. Centriole replication is complete
What is the difference between a chromosome and a chromatin?
Chromatids are the replicated chromosomes
What are the two distinct events of the mitotic phase?
- Mitosis - division of the nucleus
- Cytokinesis - division of the cytoplasm
Mitosis subphases: What is the first and what happens during this phase?
- Prophase: The replicated chromosomes (formed by the chromatin condensing and each condensed side now called chromatids) now join at the centromere. The nuclear envelope breaks down leaving the chromosomes free floating in the cell. Finally spindle fibers sprout from centrioles and migrate to opposite sides of the cell. These will eventually pull the chromatids apart.
Mitosis subphases: What is the second and what happens during this phase?
- Metaphase: Chromosomes align on the cell equator.
Mitosis subphases: What is the third and what happens during this phase?
- Anaphase: Centromere breaks up, spindle fibers pull chromatids to opposite sides. each side now has identical genetic code!
Mitosis subphases: What is the fourth and final phase before plasma division and what happens during this phase?
Telophase: Chromatids gather at each end of the cell, decondenses back to chromatin, new nuclear envelope encloses the DNA, and the spindles disappear.
What is the last step of the mitotic phase?
- Cytokinesis: Cleavage furrow is formed around equator of the cell, pinches into two, two identical cells!
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