What is consciousness and what creatures experience it?
The awareness of complex private processes such as perception, thinking, and remembering
What is waking consciousness?
Your thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized
What is the altered state of consciousness?
Thoughts may be fuzzy and disorganized, taking bizarre turns you may feel more or less alert
What are some examples of altered state
o Divided consciousness: One part of consciousness doing one thing and another doing something else Ex.) part was paying attention to drive and another was thinking of something else
Daydreaming: No attention paid
Sleep: One of our biological rhythms
What is sleep?
Infradian: Occur over a period of time greater than 24 hours
Untradian: Occur more than once in a 24 hour cycle. Most are confined to either day or night
Circadian: Variation occurs in roughly a 24 hour period
What happens when we go without sleep?
Microsleeps: Brief periods of sleep lasting for a matter of seconds
Sleep Deprivation: Trembling hands, inattention, staring off into space, droopy eyelids, general discomfort, depression, irritability
How does sleep change as we age?
REM sleep gets smaller as a person ages
Why do we sleep?
Restorative Theory of Sleep: We sleep for health reasons
The Adaptive Theory of Sleep: Sleep is a product of evolution
• How does SCN play a role in sleep?
Monitors the amount of light coming into eyes
How does the hypothalamus play a role in sleep?
Melatonin: Released by the body when there is low light
Serotonin: Sleep hormone produced by the body
What are the stages of sleep? How can we determine what stage of sleep a person is in?
Stage 1: Light sleep,Hypnogogic images or hallucinations, Hypnic jerk
Stage 2: Sleep Spindles, K-complex
Stage 3: More delta waves
Stage 4: Most delta waves
Final stage: After stage 4, a person experiences stage3 and 2 again and then REM sleep, Dreams, REM paralysis
We can use an electroencephalograph to do what?
alpha: beginning to fall asleep
theta: falling more into sleep
delta: actually falling asleep
What occurs during REM sleep?
Different types of brain waves
What is jet lag?
A period of discomfort an inefficiency while your internal clock is out of phase with your new surroundings
Individual differences in adjustment speed
Generally easier to adjust
Why do we dream?
Freudian Theory: Manifest content and Latent content
Lucid dreaming: Ability to control your dreams
The four elements of hypnosis are?
The hypnotist tells the person to focus on what is being said
The person is told to relax and feel tired
The hypnotist tells the person to let go and accept suggestions easily
The person is told to use vivid imagination
What are some of the theories of hypnosis?
Hypnosis as dissociation: Hypnosis only works on the immediate conscious mind. A part of the mind is still aware of what is going on.
Social cognitive theory: People who are hypnotized are merely playing their expected role eve if they do not know
What is meditation?
A method of including a calm, relaxed state through the use of special techniques
What are psychoactive drugs and some types of them?
Drugs that alter thinking, perception, and memory
What is physical dependence?
Tolerance: More and more of the drug is needed to achieve the same effect
Withdrawal: Physical symptoms that can include nausea, pain tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure, resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems
What is psychological dependence?
The feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being
What is addiction?
Addiction is the continued use of a mood altering substance or behavior despite adverse consequences
What are stimulants and some examples?
Amphetamines: Drugs that are synthesized (made in labs) rather than found in nature
Cocaine: Natural drug; produces euphoria, energy, power, and pleasure
Nicotine: Active ingredient in tobaccoo
Caffeine: The stimulant found in coffee, tea, most sodas. Chocolate, and even may over-the-counter drugs
• What are depressants and some examples?
Drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system
Barbiturates: Depressant drugs that have a sedative effect
Benzodiazepines: Drugs that lower anxiety and reduce stress
Rohypnol: The “date rape” drug
Alcohol: The chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various types of vegetable matter. Often taken for a stimulant, alcohol is actually a depressant on the CNS
What are opiates and some examples?
Narcotics: Suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system’s natural receptor sites for endorphins
Opium: Substance derived rom the opium poppy from which all narcotic drugs are derived
Morphine: Narcotic drug derived from opium; used to treat severe pain
Heroin: Narcotic drug derived from opium that is extremely addictive
What are hallucinogens and some examples?
Drugs that cause false sensory messages, altering the perception of reality
Psychogenic drugs: Produce hallucinations or increased feelings of relaxation and intoxication
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide): Synthetic
PCP (Angle Dust): Synthesized drug; used as an animal tranquillizer. Can cause stimulant, depressant, narcotic, or hallucinogenic effects
MDMA (Ecstasy or X): Can have both stimulant and hallucinatory effects
Mescaline: Natural hallucinogen derived from peyote cactus buttons
Psilocybin: Natural hallucinogen found in certain mushrooms
Marijuana (pot or weed): Mild hallucinogen derived from the leaves and flowers of a particular type of hemp plant. Cannabis is reported to relieve pain in cases of multiple sclerosis and chronic pain from nerve damage