BCH 361 Exam 1 Ch 5

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djwon1
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262431
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BCH 361 Exam 1 Ch 5
Updated:
2014-02-17 14:53:40
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  1. Amino acid, if R group is not H, the Amino Acid can exist in two ___ forms
    enantiomeric
  2. Modified free amino acids:
    small molecules that bind to cell receptors, generally chemical messengers
  3. Post-translationally modified AAs:
    proteins may contain AAs that are modified after they are incorporated into the protein.
  4. Peptide: __. As the amino group and the
    carboxyl group link, ___ is lost.
    • a polymer of about 2-100 AAs linked by the peptide(amide) bond
    • Water
  5. A peptide is written with the __-terminal end to the left and the __-terminal end
    to the right.
    N,C
  6. The peptide bond is ___ and ___ due to the resonance contribution.
    rigid, planar
  7. Leucine enkephalin
    a natural analgesic found in the brain
  8. Oxytocin
    Induces labor and aids in forcing milk from the mammary glands.
  9. Vassopressin
    regulates blood pressure
  10. protein functions
    • catalysis
    • structure
    • movement
    • defense
    • regulation
    • transport
    • storage
    • stress response
  11. Simple protein contain __.
    only amino acids
  12. conjugated protein contain ___.
    prosthetic group
  13. protein without prosthetic group?
    apoprotein
  14. another name of conjugated protein?
    holoprotein
  15. primary
    amino acid sequence
  16. secondary
    • 3-D arrangement of backbone atoms in space
    • H-bond
    • alpha
    • beta
  17. Tertiary
    • 3-D arrangement of all the atoms in space
    • domains
    • disulfide bonds
    • salt bridges
    • hydrophobic interactions
  18. Quaternary
    • 3-D arrangement of subunit chains
    • H-bond
    • disulfide bonds
    • salt bridges
  19. proteins with similar amino acid sequences are __.
    homologous
  20. beta sheet, anti parallel
  21. beta sheet, parallel
  22. Supersecondary Structure:
    Reverse turns in a protein chain allow helices and sheets to align side-by-side
  23. Common AA found at turns are
    • glycine: small size allows a turn
    • proline: geometry favors a turn
  24. The subunits are called
    promoters
  25. allosteric?
    a change in structure on one chain causes changes in structure at another site
  26. Denaturation due to
    • Strong acid or base
    • Organic solvents
    • Detergents
    • Reducing agents
    • Salt concentrations
    • Heavy metal ions
    • Temperature changes
    • Mechanical stress
  27. Stages of Folding
    • Hydrophobic collapse
    • Molten globules
  28. chaperones
    stabilize proteins while folding, by providing a ‘safe’ environment for exposed hydrophobic regions
  29. Fibrous proteins have a high concentration of __ or __.
    a-helix or b-sheet
  30. Globular Proteins
    bind substrates within a hydrophobic cleft
  31. Hemoglobin
    • tetrameric protein (two a-chains and two beta chains)
    • positive allosteric

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