Chemistry Exam 1.txt

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  1. Physical and chemical changes
    Physical changes the physical appearance but does not change the chemical identity or composition. EX: melting ice to water. Chemical changes the chemical identity into other substances that are chemically different. EX: lemon juice converts milk to curds and whey.
  2. Atomic theory
    1) Dalton assumed atoms to be indivisible. This isn’t true. 2) Dalton assumed that all the atoms of a given element were identical in a respects, including mass. Also incorrect. 3) Unmodified. The # of each kind of atom in simple compounds usually form a simple ratio. 4) Unmodified for chemical reactions. Atoms are broken apart in nuclear reactions.
  3. Aristotle and the Greeks viewpoint of matter
    Aristotle declared that matter was continuous (infinitely divisible) rather than discrete (consisting of tiny indivisible particles). The Greeks view of matter was that there were only 4 elements (earth, water, air, & fire) connected by 4 principles (hot, dry, cold, & moist).
  4. Nuclear atomic model
    Proposed by Ernest Rutherford. Where a positive charge was spread evenly on the space by the atom. All positive charge and nearly all mass of an atom are concentrated at the center in a tiny core called the nucleus. Nucleus only occupies a tiny fraction of the volume of an atom. Negative charged electrons almost have no mass yet they occupy nearly all of the atom.
  5. Law of definite proportions
    #27: 14 X 3.0/11 = 42/11= 3.8
  6. Carsonian nightmare and Baconian dream
    Carson was one of the first “environmentalist.” She pointed out the dangers of pesticides and other chemicals damaging to the environment, indicating that science isn’t all good. Bacon was one of the first to propose the environmental approach to science. He also felt science could solve all problems.
  7. Scientific method
    1) Observation, 2) hypothesis, 3) experiment, 4) discard/accept/revise hypothesis, & 5) theory.
  8. Desirability quotients
    DQ= Benefits/Risk
  9. Mass/weight & calculations
    Mass- measure of amount of matter in an object. Weight- force with which gravity attracts the object. Mass will always be the same, weight changes because of gravity.
  10. Classifications of matter
    Substances (elements or compounds) and Mixtures (homogeneous or heterogeneous)
  11. Elements, compounds, and mixtures
    Elements- fundamental substance from which all material things are constructed. Cannot be broken down into smaller substances by any chemical process. EX: periodic table Compounds- substances made of 2 or more elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio. EX: water Mixture- 2 or more substances but do not change chemically. They mix. EX: salt water
  12. cm and m
    1m= 100 cm
  13. km and m
    1m= .001 km
  14. Density
    d=m/v m=d X v
  15. Celcius and Kelvin
    K= C + 273.15
  16. Volume
    v= m/d
  17. Electrolysis, cations and anions
    Electrolysis is the decomposition of compounds by electricity. Carbon rods or metal strips inserted into a molten compound or solution to carry the electric current are called electrodes. Electrode that is positively charged is an anode, and the negative is cathode. Ions carry the electric current through a melted compound or a solution. Ions are an atom or group of atoms bonded together that has an electric charge. Anion is negatively charged and moves toward the anode. Cation is positively charged and moves toward the cathode.
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Chemistry Exam 1.txt
Chemistry Exam 1
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