Psychology

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Author:
tna1997
ID:
262450
Filename:
Psychology
Updated:
2014-02-19 13:42:39
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psychology
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Description:
Basic psychology test one
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  1. Learning Prospective
    • Behavior result of:
    • active, passive learning
    • stimulus/response
    • rewards and punishments
  2. Cognitive Perspective
    • Behavior is a result of:
    • Memory
    • Problem solving
    • Intelligence
    • Cognitive strategies
  3. Personality Perspective
    • Behavior is a result of:
    • Genetic disposition
    • Parent child interaction
    • Stable personality traits
    • How you are the same across time and situations
  4. Psychology
    A scientific method of studying behavior and its origins
  5. Philosophy
    • Love of knowledge or wisdom
    • Based on what makes sense
    • Contains elements of faith
    • Contains elements of observation
  6. Religion
    • Re attachment
    • Based on faith
    • Contains elements of reason
    • Contains elements of observation
  7. Science
    • Based on observation
    • What can be seen or demonstrated
    • Contains elements of reason
  8. Reality
    Science, faith and reason intertwined is reality
  9. Case Study
    • Intensely examine person/group
    • Interview them+friends family coworkers
    • Read emails, web pages ect
    • Find out everything you can

    • Advantages:
    • Find out a great deal of information
    • generates ideas
    • great for illistration

    • Disadvantages:
    • Information may be missing
    • people may lie
    • Hard to generalize everybody
    • Can't say A=B
  10. Naturalistic Observation
    • Go out in the real world and watch people
    • Usually record them
    • Make sure they don't know your watching

    • Advantages:
    • See people as they are
    • Good ideas
    • Great for illistration

    • Disadvantages:
    • Important information can be missing
    • Can't ask them questions
    • Hard to generalize
    • Can be unethical
    • Can get boring
  11. Lab Observations
    • Bring people into a lab and observe them
    • Record their behavior
    • Make sure they don't know your watching

    • Advantages:
    • More control
    • Good Ideas

    • Negatives:
    • People change their behavior
    • Can be unethical
    • doesn't
    • mimic the real world
  12. Survey
    • Just asking people questions
    • Paper and pencil
    • Email.
    • Web pages
    • Customer satisfaction

    • Advantages:
    • Lots of data fast
    • Good snapshot of what people think they have done

    • Disadvantages:
    • People lie, esp about money, sex
    • people forget
    • Hard to get representative sample
    • Volunteer bias
    • Wording can impact results
  13. Experiments
    • Treat as a hypothesis-an if than statement
    • Allows you to assign causality only method.
    • Considered the bread and butter of pyschology

    • Advantages:
    • Allows you to say A=B
    • Great deal of control
    • The most respected research method

    • Disadvantages:
    • Seems artificial
    • Results don't mimic real life
    • Researchers overestimate their value
    • Needs to be replicated many times
  14. Experiments; Systematic problems
    • Shelves studies that don't support theory
    • Publication bias against non-significant differences
    • Psychology is the scientific study of 18 year old college students
    • Replication is surprisingly difficult
    • Be prepared to chase wild geese
  15. Biopsychology
    • Studies the structure and function of the human brain
    • Closely tied to Biology
    • Expanding area of psychology
    • One of the most respected branches of psych
  16. Biopsychology Research methods
    • Lesion method-cut a cunk out of the brain and observe what happens
    • Electrode method-Done with patches connected to a sensor the measures activity
    • Needle method-Uses needles to probe or damage parts of the brain
    • Poistron Emmisin Tomography-People drink radioactive fluid
    • MRI
  17. Localization of function Theory
    States that different areas of the brain are responsible for different functions.
  18. Peripheral Nervous System
    • All portions of the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord
    • Divided int Somatic and Autonomatic system
  19. Somatic System
    • Connects to sensory receptors and muscles (some control)
    • Fight, flight, feeding procreation
  20. Autonomic System
    • Regulates our internal organs (little control)
    • Contains sympathetic (speeds you up) and parasympathetic (slows you down) systems.
  21. The Central Nervous System
    • Brain and spinal cord
    • processes and stores information
  22. Brain Stem
    • Pons-Regulates sleeping waking and dreaming
    • Medulla-Regulates breathing and hear rate
    • Reticular Activating System-Screens incoming information for importance
    • Cerebellum-Regulates balance/coordination and well learned motor skills
    • Amygula-Aggression and prejudice
    • Hypothalamus-Emotions such as fear, hunger, thirst and reproduction
    • Thalamus-Relays information to sensory cortex. All information comes through the thalamus except smell
    • Olfactory Bulb-Processes smell. Smell, emotions and memory
    • Hippocampus-Transfers short term memory to long term memory
  23. Cereral Cortex
    • 75% of all grey matter
    • Occipital-Contains visual cortex
    • Parietal-Somatosensory cortex
    • Temporal-Auditory cortex and Wernickes area, understand spoke language
    • Frontal-Self control, reasoning, planning, creativity, initiative and broca's area-produces spoken language
  24. Biopsychology: +-
    • Positives:
    • Tied to biology
    • Powerful new tools
    • New drugs and treatments

    • Negatives:
    • Not cut and dried
    • Exceptions
    • Too simplistic. Numbers don't add up
    • Ockhams Razor-Explaining the most complex things on earth in the simplest terms possible
  25. Evolutionary Psychology
    • Humans are simply machines created by their genes, so that the genes can propel themselves into future generations
    • Behavior both adaptive in past and present
    • We exsist for the soul pupose of have sex and producing offspring
  26. Cross cultural Attraction
    Things that people in all cultures find attractive. They don't change over cultures. Genetically encoded
  27. Cross cultural aspects off attractiveness
    • Physical attractiveness indicates you have good genes
    • Makes sense because attractiveness precedes mating
  28. Behaviors genetically influenced
    • language
    • Intelligence
    • Temperment
    • Reflexes
    • Novelty, play and exploration
  29. Evolutionary Psych +-
    • Positives:
    • Tied to biology
    • some aspects make sense
    • new treatments

    • Negatives:
    • Violates rule of proximal to distal causality-leaves out other explanations for behavior
    • Predictions usually don't happen
    • Can be offensive
  30. Structualism
    emphasizes the analysis of immediate experiences into basic elements
  31. Functionalism
    Emphasizes the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness
  32. Correlation
    a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another. Positive -  correlation means high or low values of each variable are in correlation with one another. Negative correlation if one variable increases the other decreases in correlation
  33. Neuron
    A cell that conducts electrochemical signals. The basic unit if the nervous system. Also called a nerve cell

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