PSY 325

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PSY 325
2014-02-18 01:53:25
Cognitive Psychology

Exam 1
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  1. The example at the beginning of the book, in which Raphael talks to his friend on a
    cell phone on his way to class, was used to illustrate how
    a. cognitive psychologists study problem solving in adults
    b. complex but seemingly effortless human cognition
    c. human cognition is affected by emotional events
    d. both psychology and behavior is important to the study of cognition
    Complex but seemingly effortless human cognition is
  2. By comparing reaction times across different
    tasks, Donders was able to conclude how long the mind needs to perform a certain cognitive task.  Donders interpreted the difference in reaction time between the simple and choice
    conditions of his experiment as indicating how long it took to
    a.   perceive the stimulus.
    b.   process the stimulus.
    c.   attend to the stimulus.
    d.   make a decision about the stimulus.
    Make a  decision about the stimulus
  3. Reaction time refers to the time between the ________ of a stimulus and a person’s response to it.
    a. perception
    b. mental awareness
    c. disappearance
    d. presentation
  4. Ebbinghaus' "memory" experiments were important because they
    a. described complex decision making
    b. plotted functions that described the operation of the mind
    c. were the first to combing basic elements of experience called sensations
    d. showed how positive reinforcers strengthen behavior
    plotted functions that described the operation of the mind
  5. According to Ebbinghaus' savings curve, savings is a function of
    a. word familiarity
    b. sensory modality
    c. retention interval
    d. reaction time
    Retention interval
  6. John Watson believed that psychology should focus on the study of
    a. observable behavior
    b. mental processes
    c. consciousness
    d. attention
    Observable behavior
  7. Who proposed that children's language development was caused by imitation and reinforcement?
    A. Keller Breland
    B. Noam Chomsky
    C. John Watson
    D. B.F. Skinner
    C.F. Skinner
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. The relation between the                is NOT measured directly by cognitive psychologists
    a. psychological response and the behavioral outcome
    b. cognitive task and the behavioral outcome
    c. cognitive task and the psychological outcome
    d. cognitive task and the mental response
    Cognitive task and the mental response
  9. The neuron doctrine is
    a. in agreement with nerve net theory
    b. unrelated to nerve net theory
    c. synonymous with nerve net theory
    d. in disagreement with nerve net theory
    In disagreement with nerve net theory
  10. Which of the following neural components is NOT found at the receiving end of neurons?
    a. cell body
    b. dendrite
    c. receptor
    d. axon
  11. Which of the following statements best describes hour neurons communicate with one another
    a. the end of one neuron makes different contact with the receiving end of another neuron
    b. a chemical process takes place at the synapse
    c. an electrical process takes place in the receptors
    d. action potentials travel across the synapse
    A chemical process that takes place at the synapse
  12. A 10-month old baby is interested in discovering different textures, comparing the touch sensations between soft blanket and a hard wooden block. Tactile signs such as these are perceived by the              lobe
    a. parietal
    b. occipital
    c. frontal
    d. temporal
  13. Sarah has experienced brain damage making it difficult for her to understand spatial layout. Which are of her brain has most likely sustained damage?
    a. fusiform face area (ffa)
    b. parahippocampal place area (ppa)
    c. extrastriate body area (eba)
    d. functional magnetic area (fma)
    Parahippocampal place area (PPA)
  14. Roman is looking at pictures of scantily clad women in a magazine. He is focusing on their body parts, particularly their chest and legs. Which part of Roman's brain is activated by this viewing?
    a. fusiform face area (ffa)
    b. parahippocampal place area (ppa)
    c. extrastriate body area (eba)
    d. functional magnetic area (fma)
    Extrastrite Body Area (EBA)
  15. In ERP methodology, the numebr that follows the N or P (N400 or P300, for example) stands for
    a.the positivity or negativity of the response
    b. how likely the response is, with higher numbers indicating a more likely response
    c. how strong the response is in millimeters on the reading
    d. the time at which the response peaks in seconds
    The time at which response peaks in milliseconds
  16. The idea that specific functions are processed in many parts of the brain is known as
    a. localization of function
    b. distributed processing
    c. modularity
    d. aphasia
    distributed processing
  17. When conducting an experiment on how stimuli are represented by firing of neurons, you notice that neurons respond differently to different faces. For example, Arthur's face causes three neurons to fire, with neuron 1 responding the most and neuron 3 responding the least. Roger's face causes the same three neurons to fire, with neuron 1 responding the least and neuron 3 responding the most. Your results support               coding.
    a. specificity
    b. distributed
    c. convergence
    d. divergene
  18. Most cognitive psychologists               the notion of a grandmother cell.
    a. accept
    b. are uncertain about
    c. reject
    d. are actively investigating
  19. The sequence of steps that includes the image of the retina, changing the image into electrical signals, and neural processing is an example of              processing
    a. bottom-up
    b. top-down
  20. Which of the following is NOT associated with recognition-by-components theory?
    a. objects are analyzed into parts early in the perceptual process
    b. attention is used to combine features in the perception of whole objects
    c. basic shapes are combined to form objects
    d. bottom-up processing
    Attention is used to combine features in the perception of whole objects
  21. When people look at a tree, they recieve information about the geons of the object through stimulation of receptors. But they are also aided in identifying the objects as a tree by knowledge that a tree often has the sky as a background and sits on grass. The prior knowledge travels down from high centers to influence the incoming signals. The latter information from the higher centers illustrates
    a. feedback signals
    b. principals of componential recovery
    c. the law of good figure
    d. the oblique effect
    Feedback signals
  22. Evidence for the role of top-down processing in perception is shown by which of the following examples?
    a.   When someone can easily select a target that has a feature distinct from distracters
    b.   When someone cannot read an illegible word in a written sentence
    c.   When someone easily identifies an object even though that object is unexpected in
    that context (e.g., identifying a telephone inside a refrigerator)
    d.   When someone accurately identifies a word in a song on a radio broadcast despite static interfering with reception
    When someone accurately identifies a word in a song on a radio broadcast despite static interfering with reception
  23. "Every stimulus pattern is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible" refers to which Gestalt law?
    a. good figure
    b. similarity
    c. familiarity
    d. common fate
    Good figure
  24. Which of the following is NOT an example of a physical regularity in your text
    a. vertical orientation
    b. horizontal orientation
    c. angled orientation
    d. having one object that is partially covered by another "come out the other side"
    Angled orientation
  25. The experimental technique that involves removing part of the brain is known as
    a. brain ablation
    b. dissociation
    c. fMRI
    d. EEG
    brain ablation
  26. The study of the behavior of humans with brain damage is called
    a. neuropsychology
    b. functional localization
    c. position emission tomography
    d. the subtraction technique
  27. Dichotic listening occurs when
    a. the same message is presented to the left and right ears
    b. different messages are presented to the left and right ears
    c. a message is presented to one ear, and a masking noise is presented to the other ear
    d. participants are asked to listen to a message and look at a visual stimulus, both at the same time
    Different messages are presented to the left and right ears
  28. When a person is shadowing a message, he or she is
    a. silently following it mentall
    b. ignoring it while paying attention to another message
    c. saying the message outloud
    d. thinking about something closely related to the message
    saying the message out loud
  29. Selection of the attended message in the Broadbent model occurs based on the
    a. meaning of the message
    b. physical characteristics of the message
    c. physical characteristics of the message pls the meaning, if necessary
    d. listener's ability to mentally block the unattended message from getting in
    Physical characteristic of the message
  30. The main difference between early and late selection of models of attention is that in late selection models, selection of stimuli for final processing doesn't occur until the information is analyzed for
    a. modality
    b. meaning
    c. physical characteristics
    d. location
  31. Which stage of Treisman's "attention model" has a threshold component
    a. the attenuator
    b. the dictionary unit
    c. the filter
    d. the "leaky" filter
    The dictionary unit
  32. Suppose you are in your kitchen writing a grocery list, while your roommate is watching
    TV in the next room. A commercial for spaghetti sauce comes on TV. Although you
    are not paying attention to the TV, you “suddenly” remember that you need to
    pick up spaghetti sauce and add it to the list. Your behavior is best predicted
    by which of the following models of attention?
    a. object-based
    b. early selection
    c. spotlight
    d. late selection
    Late Selection
  33. According to your text, the ability to divide attention depends on all the following EXCEPT
    a. practice
    b. the type of tasks
    c. the difficulty of the tasks
    d. task cueing
    task cueing
  34. The automatic process exhibited in the standard Stroop effect is
    a. naming colors
    b. reading words
    c. naming distractors
    d. shadowing messages
    Reading words
  35. Automatic attraction of attention by sudden visual or auditory stimulus is called
    a. covert attention
    b. exogenous attention
    c. endogenous attention
    d. an illusory conjunction
    Exogenous attention
  36. Scene schema is
    a. rapid movements of the eyes from one place to another in a scene
    b. short pauses of the eyes on points of interest in a scene
    c. how attention is distributed throughout a static scene
    d. knowledge about what is contained in a typical scene
    Knowledge about what is contained in a typical scene