Final Exam I cards

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Final Exam I cards
2014-02-17 19:53:40
Plant Kingdom
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  1. Heterocyst structure
    • Light in appearance; larger than other vegetative cells
    • Sensitive to oxygen
    • Thicker wall that prevents diffusion of oxygen
    • Develop from vegetative cells
    • Not as granular
    • Contain polar nodules (which connect) where there is a cytoplasmic connection between vegetative cells called microplasmodesmata
    • Do not contain oxygen containing pigments
    • Low in phycobilins and lack PS II
  2. Heterocyst function
    • N fixation
    • -          Products are transported through the microplasmodesmata from the heterocyst to the vegetative cells and the products of photosynthesis move in the opposite direction
  3. akinete structure
    • Larger than heterocysts; located next to heterocysts
    • More granular in appearance; stacked with storage food
    • Enlarged cells surrounded by thickened envelopes
  4. akinete function
    • Not a reproductive structure; more of a resistance structure, which increases viability
    • Allow the cy. to survive during unfavorable periods
  5. lynbyatoxins

    causes __

    contains __
    • lynbyatoxin a 
    • aplasiatoxin


    tumor-producing compounds
  6. hormogonia structure
    Short segments from cyanobacteria that break off from a cyanobacterial colony
  7. hormogonia function
    Glide away from their parent colony at rates as rapid as 10 micrometers per second
  8. chlamydomonas
    • Unicellular with two equal flagella
    • Form of green algae
  9. function of chlamydomonas
    • Has red photosensitive eyespot, the stigma, that aids in detection of light
    • Chloroplast contains pyrenoid (surrounded by starch)
    • Contractile vacuoles 
  10. volvox structure
    • Motile colonies; a hollow sphere; vegetative, biflagellated cells and nonflagellated reproductive cells
    • Oogamous sexual reproduction
  11. True or False:

    Some species of dinoflagellates can release exotoxins.
    True: think of pfiesteria piscicida
  12. __ affect Na+ transport in the ANS and cause inhibition of neurons and transmission in skeletal muscle.
  13. Fucus is __ that has __.

    haplobiontic diploid
  14. Symbiotic dinoflagellates rae called __. They are responsible for __.
    • zooxanthellae
    • coral reefs
  15. In diatoms and dinoflagellates, which form of reproduction is more prominent?
    asex is more prominent than sex
  16. What are hydrocolloids?
    substances that form a gel in the presence of water; used as thickeners, emulsifiers, smoothing agents, stabilizing agents, etc.

    • algins
    • agar
    • carageenan
  17. Fucus is __.
  18. Macrocystis is __
    brown algae
  19. Red Algae (polysiphonia) life cycle
    sex organs arise near the tips of branches of the haploid gametophytes (which arise from haploid tetraspores) 

    spermatanngia releases cells taht act as spermatia

    the carpagonium contains the nucleus at the basal layer and acts as the egg and is fertilized

    diploid carpospores are formed by mitosis within carposporangia and freed through the pericarp (outer stucture)

    carpospores germinate and form the tetrasporophyte, which produce the tetrasporangia

    Through meiosis, the four tetraspores are formed (haploid) and form the haploid gametophytes starting the cycle over
  20. Why are red algae considered triphasic?
    they have two sporophytes and one gametophyte