PTA 212 Exam 1

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PTA 212 Exam 1
2014-02-17 21:39:23

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  1. Hierarchic Model
    • Control from top down.
    • Coertex is the highest level of control.
    • movement acquired in response to sensory environment.
    • Cortex
    • midbrain
    • Brain stem
    • Spinal Cord
  2. Hierarchic Model lower level control
    • Spinal cord and brain stem
    • static posture and reflexive, non-purposeful movement
    • primitive reflexive reactions
    • inhibited by higher cns levels as brain developes
  3. Hierarchic Model mid level control
    • midbrain
    • quadruped activities
    • righting reactions
  4. Hierarchic Model higher level control
    • cortex
    • protective and equilibrium reactions
    • bipedal movement
  5. Hierarchic Model stages of motor control
    • stage 1 mobility, initiation of movement
    • stage 2 stability, ability to maintain a steady anti gravity posture
    • stage 3 controlled mobility, weight shifting within a posture, proximal stability with distal mobility
    • stage 4 skill, ability to manipulate environment
  6. Systems model
    • relationship of many systems of the body working together to control posture and movement.
    • movement pattern is basic functional unit
    • feedback closed loop (video games) open loop (adjusting after task)
  7. Phases of motor learning cognitive
    • new to learner understanding task
    • what to do
  8. Phases of motor learning Associative
    practicing the task
  9. Phases of motor learning Autonomous
    automatic movements requires little thought
  10. Brunnstrom synergy patterns UE
    • Flexion=retraction, elevation, ER abd 90*, elbow flexion, forearm supination, wrist and finger flexion
    • Extension= opposite
  11. Brunnstrom synergy patterns LE
    • Flexion= hip flexion, abd, ER, knee flexion to 90*, ankle DF, inversion, toe extension
    • Extension= opposite
  12. Brunnstrom stages of recovery
    • I flaccidity
    • II Spasticity begins to develop
    • III spasticity increases and reaches peak
    • IV Spasticity begins to decrease
    • V Spasticity continues to decrease
    • VI Spasticity is essentially absent
    • VII Return to normal function
  13. Decerebrate rigidity
    arms in extension
  14. Decorticate rigidity
    arms in flexion
  15. Coup
    Initial blow
  16. Contra coup
    2nd bounce or rebound
  17. S&S intracranial pressure
    • decreased responsivness
    • impaired consciousness
    • HA
    • Irritability
    • optic disc swelling
    • changes in vitals
  18. Glasgow coma scale
    used to assess level of arousal and function of the cerebral cortex
  19. Ranchos Los amigos levels of cognitive function
    • level I no response
    • II generalized response, inconsistant and non purposeful
    • III localized response inconsistently but specifically to stimuli.
    • IV Confused-agitated
    • V confused-inappropriate max assist
    • VI confused appropriate mod assist
    • VII automatic appropriate min assist
    • VIII purposeful appropriate SBA
    • IX able to live alone purposeful appropriate SBA on request
    • X independent purposeful appropriate mod I
  20. Rood pricipals
    pertaining to movement, quick stretch, light touch, tapping
  21. NDT technique
    Using key points of control to encourage normal movement patterns.
  22. PNF technique
    • agonistic reversals
    • rhythmic initiation
    • hold relax contract relax
    • rhythmic stabilization
    • slow reversal hold
  23. left hemisphere deficits
    • motor programming (sequencing of movements, longer to learn a task, apraxia)
    • speech and language (aphasia)
    • cognitive and behavior (expression of positive, analyzing details, math)
  24. Right hemisphere deficits
    • motor programming (inability to sustain activity)
    • perceptual (visual, body image, unilateral neglect)
    • Cognitive and behavior (expressing negitive, grasping large picture, emotion)
  25. anterior cerebral artery stroke
    • frontal and parietal lobes
    • LE hemiparesis
    • sensory loss
    • grasp reflex
    • aphasia
    • apraxia
    • agraphia
  26. Middle cerebral artery stroke
    • most common site
    • hemiparesis or hemiplegia of face and arm more than leg
    • hemianopsia (loss of field of vision)
    • denial
    • spatial disorganization
  27. apraxia
    Apraxia is a disorder of the brain and nervous system in which a person is unable to perform tasks or movements when asked, even though: The request or command is understood
  28. ataxia
    Uncoordinated movement is due to a muscle control problem that causes an inability to coordinate movements. It leads to a jerky, unsteady, to-and-fro motion of the middle of the body (trunk) and an unsteady gait
  29. asthenia
    abnormal physical weakness or lack of energy.
  30. dysmetria
    Dysmetria refers to a lack of coordination of movement typified by the undershoot or overshoot of intended position with the hand, arm, leg, or eye. It is a type of ataxia. It is sometimes described as an inability to judge distance or scale. ...
  31. hemiparesis
  32. dysphagia
    Difficulty with swallowing is the sensation that food is stuck in the throat, or from the neck down to just above the abdomen behind the breastbone
  33. clonus
    muscular spasm involving repeated, often rhythmic, contractions.
  34. dystonia
    a state of abnormal muscle tone resulting in muscular spasm and abnormal posture, typically due to neurological disease or a side effect of drug therapy