This area of the brain is involved in all conscious processes (e.g., learning, memory, reasoning, verbalization, and voluntary body movements); Contains sensory and motor neurons.
This area of the brain recieved impulses carrying sensations such as heat, cold, pain, and muscle position sense; these sensations are relayed to the cerebral cortex.
This part of the brain helps maintain homeostasis by constantly adjusting water balance, temperature, hormone levels, blood pressure and other body functions.
What is the function of oxytocin?
Oxytocin initiates uterine contractions to begin labor and delivery and helps release milk from breast glands during breastfeeding
This part of the brain contaings groups of neurons that form the vital cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor centers; Also contains reflex center for coughing, vomiting, sneezing, swallowing, and salivating.
This part of the brain recieves impulses from all parts of the body, evaluates the significance of the impulses, and decides which impulses to transmit to the cerebral cortex.
Reticular activating system (RAS)
Stimulations of the neurons in this part of the brain produces mental alertness, and depression causes sedation and loss of consciousness.
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
What are the functions of the limbic system?
Behavior, sleep-wake cycle, emotions.
This part of the brain coordinates muscle activity and helps to maintain balance and posture.
Parksinson's disease is caused by a decrease in what hormone?
Differentiate between pyramidal and extrapyramidal.
Extrapyrapidal - do not enter the medullary pyramids and cross over.
List 3 things that the brain must have in continuous supply.
Oxygen, glucose, and thiamine.
List the S&S of hypoglycemia.
Mental confusion, dizziness, convulsions, loss of consciousness, and permanent damage to the cerebral cortex
What is Wenicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy due to?
Lack of thiamine
What is thiamine used for?
production and use of glucose
What neurotransmitter is used by the cholinergic system?
What neurotransmitter does the dopaminergic system use?
What neurotransmitter does the Gaba-ergic system use?
Gamma-aminobutric acid (GABA)
What neurotransmitter does the noradrenergic system use?
What neurotransmitter does the serotonergic system use?
- excitory or inhibitory
- list its functions
- level of arousal, memory, motor function, speech
- excitory or inhibitory
- inhibitory in the basal ganglia but may be excitory in other areas
What is it called when repeated stimulation of dopamine receptros decrease their numbers?
What is it called when repeated stimulation of dopamine receptros decrease their sensitivity to dopamine?
Identify the two groups of dopamine receptors.
1. D1 & D5
2. D2, D3, & D4
What is the function of D1 and D5 receptors?
They activate adenyl cyclase to produce cAMP
What is the function of D2 receptors?
These are thought to inhibit activation of adenyl cyclase and subsequent production of cAMP, suppress calcium ion currents, and activate potassium ion currents.