Child Development Exam 1

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Child Development Exam 1
2014-03-23 18:33:30
suny geneseo child development

Covers chapters 1-4 in "Infants and Children: Prenatal Through Middle Childhood"
Show Answers:

  1. Define Developmental Science
    The study of all changes we experience throughout our lifespan
  2. Define Child Development
    The study of changes and constancy from conception through adolescence
  3. Define interdisciplinary study
    A study that encompasses multiple fields
  4. What are the domains of Child Development?
    • Physical
    • Cognitive
    • Social-Emotional
  5. What does the physical domain of Child Development cover?
    • Body size & proportions
    • Appearance
    • Functioning of body systems
    • Health
    • Perceptual and motor capabilities
  6. What does the cognitive domain of Child Development cover?
    Intellectual abilities
  7. What does the social-emotional domain of Child Development cover?
    • Emotional communication
    • Self-understanding
    • Knowledge about others
    • Interpersonal skills and relationships
    • Moral reasoning and behavior
  8. Name the periods of development
    • Prenatal
    • Infancy and Toddlerhood
    • Early Childhood
    • Middle Childhood
    • Adolescence
    • Emerging Adulthood
  9. When does the prenatal period of development occur?
    Conception → Birth
  10. When does the infancy & toddlerhood period of development occur?
    Birth → 2 years
  11. When does the early childhood period of development occur?
    2 → 6 years
  12. When does the middle childhood period of development occur?
    6 → 11 years
  13. When does the adolescence period of development occur?
    11 → 18 years
  14. When does the emerging adulthood period of development occur?
    18 → 25 years
  15. What is continuous development?
    The view that development is a process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with
  16. What is discontinuous development?
    A view of development as a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times
  17. What was the view of children in the Medieval Era?
    • Childhood (up to age 7 or 8) regarded as separate phase with special needs and protections
    • Children were both angelic and demonic
  18. What was the view of children in the 16th Century?
    • Puritan "child depravity" views
    • Civilize the children
  19. What was the view of children in the 17th Century?
    • John Locke "tabula rasa" or "blank state" view
    • Continuous development 
    • Their experience now is gonna be their future
  20. What was the view of children in the 18th Century?
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau "noble savages" view
    • Natural maturation
    • Born with natural sense of right vs wrong
    • Innate plan for growth
    • Adults should be receptive to children's needs
    • Children control their own futures
  21. What is the evolutionary theory of development?
    Darwin's ideas of natural selection and survival of the fittest are still influential
  22. What is the normative approach of development?
    Hall and Gesell: Age-related averages based on measurements of large numbers of children
  23. What is the mental testing movement of development?
    Binet and Simon: Early developers of intelligence tests
  24. What are the three parts of personality according to Freud?
    • Id
    • Ego
    • Superego
  25. What is the Id?
    • Largest portion of the mind
    • Unconscious, present at birth
    • Source of biological needs and desires
  26. What is the ego?
    • Conscious, rational part of mind
    • Emerges in early infancy
    • Redirects id impulses acceptably
  27. What is the superego?
    • The conscience
    • Develops from ages 3 → 6 from interactions with caregiver
  28. What are Freud's psychosexual stages?
    • Oral
    • Anal
    • Phallic
    • Latency
    • Genital
  29. What are Erikson's psychosocial stages?
    • Basic trust v. mistrust [birth → 1 year]
    • Autonomy v. shame and doubt [1 → 3 years]
    • Initiative v. guilt [3 → 6 years]
    • Industry v. inferiority [6 → 11 years]
    • Identity v. role confusion [Adolescence]
    • Intimacy v. isolation [Emerging adulthood]
    • Generation v. stagnation [Adulthood]
    • Integrity v. despair [Old Age]
  30. How does classical conditioning work?
    • Stimulus → Response
    • John Watson used it to show that adults can control children
  31. How does operant conditioning work?
    • Reinforcers and Punishments
    • Coined by B.F. Skinner
  32. How does the social cognitive approach work?
    • Modeling self-efficacy
    • Bandura's experiment showed that you observe a behavior, you're most likely to replicate it
    • "monkey see, monkey do"
  33. What is information processing?
    • An approach that views the human mind as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows
    • Used as guides for asking questions about broad changes in children's thinking
    • Similar to Piaget's theory in that it regards children as active, sense-making beings who modify their own thinking in response to environmental demands
    • BUT it doesn't divide development into stages
    • Continuous cognitive development
  34. What is developmental cognitive neuroscience?
    • An area of investigation that brings together researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine
    • Study of the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing child's cognitive processing and behavior patterns
  35. What is ethology?
    • An approach concerned with the adaptive value of behavior and its evolutionary theory
    • Roots traced to Darwin
    • Konrad and Niko Tinbergen observed:
    • -imprinting
    • -critical period
    • -sensitive period
    • John Bowlby applied ethological theory to understanding the human caregiver-infant relationship
  36. What is imprinting?
    • The early following behavior of certain baby birds
    • ex: baby geese follow momma goose to ensure that they stay close to momma so they can be fed and protected
  37. What is the critical period?
    A limited time span during which the child is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of an approximately stimulating environment
  38. What is the sensitive period?
    • A time that is biologically optimal for certain capacities to emerge and which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences
    • ↳its boundaries are less well-defined than those of a critical period. Development can occur later, but it's harder to induce.
  39. What is evolutionary developmental psychology?
    • An approach that seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as those competencies change with age
    • ↳evolutionary psychologists want to understand the entire organism-environment system
  40. What is Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory?
    • Children acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture through social interaction, especially cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of their society
    • He agreed with Piaget that children are active, constructive beings
    • BUT while Piaget emphasized children's independent efforts to make sense of their world, Vygotsky saw that children depend on assistance from adults and more expert peers as they tackle new challenges
  41. What is the ecological systems theory?
    • Bronfenbrenner's approach, which views the child as developing within a complex system of relationship affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment
    • Ranges from immediate settings of family and school to broad culture values/customs/resources
    • Microsystem→Mesosystem→Exosystem→Macrosystem→Chronosystem
  42. What is a microsystem?
    • The innermost level of the environment, consisting of activities and interaction pattern in the child's immediate surroundings
    • ex: family
  43. What is a mesosystem?
    • The connections between children's microsystems, or immediate settings
    • ex: child-care center or school; neighborhood play area
  44. What is a exosystem?
    • The social settings that do not contain children but nevertheless affect children's experiences
    • ex: parents' workplaces; religious institutions; health and welfare services in the community; parents' social networks; extended family; neighbors and friends
  45. What is a macrosystem?
    The cultural values, laws, customs, and resources that influence experiences and interactions at inner levels of the environment
  46. What is a chronosystem?
    • In the ecological systems theory, the temporal changes in environments either externally imposed or rising from within the child, that produce new conditions affecting development
    • ex: birth of a sibling; beginning of school; a move to a new neighborhood; parents' divorce
  47. What are chromosomes?
    Rod-like structures that store and transmit genetic information (DNA)
  48. How many chromosomes do we have?
    46 (23 pairs)
  49. What are autosomes and how many do we have?
    • Non-sex chromosomes
    • We have 22 pairs
  50. What are gametes?
    • Sex cells
    • Sperm in males
    • Ova in females
  51. How does meiosis work?
    • Original cell (46 chromosomes per cell)
    • Prophase 1: Chromosomes duplicate and form X's with the clone (92 chromosomes per cell)
    • Metaphase 1: Pairs of X's cross over each other and share info
    • Anaphase 1: Mixed X's separate into 2 groups of 46 chromosomes
    • Telophase 1 and Prophase 2: 2 cells of 46 chromosomes each (46 chromosomes per cell)
    • Metaphase 2: Each cell has the chromosomes line up in the center
    • Anaphase 2: X's break into V's
    • Telophase 2: Each cell's V shaped chromosomes split into 2 even groups and form new cells (23 chromosomes per cell)
  52. What are dizygotic twins?
    • Fraternal twins
    • The most common type of multiple birth, resulting from the release and fertilization of two ova
    • The frequency is about 1/60 births in the US
  53. What are monozygotic twins?
    • Happens when a zygote that has started to duplicate separates into two clusters of cells that develop into two individuals
    • The frequency is about 1/330 births all over the world
  54. What are the maternal factors linked to fraternal twinning?
    • Ethnicity
    • Family history of twinning
    • Age
    • Nutrition
    • Number of births
    • Fertility drugs and in vitro fertilization
  55. What is an allele?
    • Each form of a gene
    • Located at a specific position on a specific chromosome
    • A DNA coding that determines distinct traits that can be passed on from parent to offspring
    • Can be homozygous or heterozygous
  56. What are modifier genes?
    Genes that enhance or dilute the effects of other genes
  57. What is incomplete dominance?
    • A pattern of inheritance in which both alleles are expressed in the phenotype, resulting in a combined trait, or one that is intermediate between the two
    • ex: sickle cell trait is a heterozygous condition (not to be confused with sickle cell anemia, which occurs when two recessive alleles for it are present)
  58. What is an X-linked inheritance?
    A pattern of inheritance in which a recessive gene is carried on the X chromosome, so that males are more likely than females to be affected
  59. What is genomic imprinting?
    A pattern of inheritance in which alleles are imprinted, or chemically marked, in such a way that one member is activated, regardless of its makeup
  60. What is polygenic inheritance?
    A pattern of inheritance in which many genes affect the characteristic in question
  61. What is Down Syndrome?
    • Most common chromosomal disorder
    • Occurs 1/770 live births
    • Sometimes called trisomy 21 because the 21st pair of chromosomes fails to separate during meiosis and ends up with 3 chromosomes instead of 2
  62. What are some sex chromosomal disorders?
    • XYY syndrome [really tall with large teeth and acne problems]
    • Triple X syndrome [really tall with impaired verbal intelligence]
    • Klinefelter syndrome (XXY) [really tall with body fat distribution resembling females, incomplete development of sex characteristics at puberty, sterility, and impaired verbal intelligence]
    • Turner syndrome (XO) [Short stature, webbed neck, incomplete development of sex characteristics at puberty, sterility, and impaired spatial intelligence]
  63. What is genetic counseling?
    A communication process designed to help couples assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a heredity disorder and choose the best course of action in view of risks and family goals
  64. What are prenatal diagnostic methods?
    Medical procedures that permit detection of developmental problems before birth
  65. What is direct influence?
    • When the behavior of one family member helps sustain a pattern of interaction that promotes or undermines well-being
    • Can go both ways
    • Located in the microsystem of the ecological systems theory
  66. What is indirect influence?
    • When the relationship between two other people affects the child
    • Located in the mesosystem
  67. What is socioeconomic status?
    • A measure of an individual's social position and economic well-being that combines three related variables:
    • -years of education
    • -the prestige of one's job and the skill it requires
    • -income
  68. What is a subculture?
    A group of people with beliefs and customs that differ from those of the larger culture
  69. What are collectivist societies?
    Societies in which people define themselves as part of a group and stress group goals over individual goals
  70. What are individualistic societies?
    Societies in which people define themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs
  71. What are public policies?
    • Laws and government programs designed to improve current conditions
    • ex: when poverty increases and families become homeless, a country might decide to build more low-cost housing, provide economic aid to homeowners having difficulty making mortgage payments and increase welfare benefits
  72. What is behavioral genetics?
    A field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to this diversity in human traits and abilites
  73. What do heritability estimates measure?
    • The extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors
    • They're obtained from kinship
  74. What are kinship studies?
    • Studies which compare the characteristics of family members
    • Most common one compares identical twins with fraternal twins
  75. What is range of reaction?
    Each person's unique, genetically determined response to the environment
  76. What is canalization?
    • The tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes
    • ex: infant perceptual and motor development seems to be strongly canalized because all normal human babies eventually roll over, reach for objects, sit up, crawl, and walk. It takes extreme conditions to modify these behaviors or cause them not to appear. In contrast, intelligence and personality are less strongly canalized; they vary much more with changes in the environment
  77. What is genetic-environmental correlation?
    The idea that heredity influences the environments to which individuals are exposed
  78. What is niche-picking?
    • The tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity 
    • Infants and young children can't do much niche-picking because adults select environments for them
    • Older children and adolescents are much more in charge of their environments
  79. What is epigenesis?
    Development results from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment
  80. What are the advantages of a one-child family according to the parents?
    • Having time to pursue one's own interests and career 
    • Less financial pressure
    • Not having to worry about "playing favorites" among children
  81. What are the advantages of a one-child family according to the child?
    • Having no sibling rivalry
    • Having more privacy
    • Enjoying greater affluence
    • Having a closer parent-child relationship
  82. What are the disadvantages of a one-child family according to the parents?
    • Walking a "tightrope" between healthy attention and overindulgence
    • Having only one chance to "make good" as a parent
    • Being left childless in case of the child's death
  83. What are the disadvantages of a one-child family according to the child?
    • Not getting to experience the closeness of a sibling relationship
    • Feeling too much pressure from parents to succeed
    • Having no one to help care for parents when they get old
  84. What happens in the first part of the first trimester?
    • Zygote (lasts for 2 weeks)
    • The ovum goes into the Fallopian Tube and stays there for a day
    • -Fertilization
    • -Implantation in the uterus
    • (amnion membrane helps protect the zygote)
    • -Start of the placenta
  85. What is a placenta?
    • It permits food and oxygen to go in and wastes to go out of the amniotic sac
    • It connects to the umbilical chord
  86. What happens in the second part of the first trimester?
    • Embryo (6 weeks)
    • The most rapid change occurs in this stage
    • By the end of the first month:
    • -mesoderm turns into muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and internal organs
    • -endoderm turns into digestive system, lungs, and urinary tract
    • At the beginning of the second month:
    • -arms, legs, face, organs, and muscles develop
    • -heart begins beating
    • -babies start to respond to touch & start moving, but they're so small that moms can't feel it
  87. What happens in the third part of the first trimester?
    • Fetus (30 weeks)
    • "Growth & Finishing" - huge rapid increase in size
    • In the third month, the baby starts responding to brain signals (baby kicks, bends, opens mouth, etc)
    • Genitals are formed (gender indicator)
  88. What happens in the second trimester?
    • Most of neurons are placed
    • Fetus seems like it's irritated by sounds
    • Sight begins to emerge
    • Lungs are immature & brain can't control body temperature and breathing
  89. What happens in the third trimester?
    • Age of vitality = between 22-26 weeks
    • Brain continues to develop 
    • Fetus tends to be awake more often
    • *some believe that this is when the personality develops because there's a correlation between activity inside the womb & activity outside the womb
    • Taste & odor preferences develop
    • Differentiation of tones & pitch of people develop
  90. What is a blastocyst?
    The zygote four days after fertilization, when the tiny mass of cells forms a hollow, fluid-filled ball
  91. What is the embryonic disk?
    A small cluster of cells on the inside of the blastocyst, from which the new organism will develop
  92. What is the trophoblast?
    The thin outer ring of cells of blastocyst, which will become the structures that provide protective covering and nourishment to the new organism
  93. What is the chorion?
    • The outer membrane that forms a protective covering around the prenatal organism
    • It sends out tiny hairlike villi, from which the placenta begins to develop
  94. What is the age of viability?
    • The point at which the baby can first survive
    • Occurs sometime between 22 and 26 weeks
  95. What is a teratogen?
    Any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
  96. What are the factors that the harm caused by teratogens depends on?
    • Dose
    • Heredity
    • Other negative influences
    • Age
  97. What is the most common prescription teratogen?
    Accutane (a very strong acne medication)
  98. What complications can accutane-use during pregnancy cause?
    Malfunctions in eye, ear, brain, heart, and immune system if taken during the first trimester
  99. What is the second most common prescription teratogen?
    Antidepressants and anti anxiety medication
  100. What complications can antidepressants and anti anxiety medication-use during pregnancy cause?
    They're linked to premature delivery and birthing problems
  101. What is the most common nonprescription teratogen?
  102. What complications can aspirin-use during pregnancy cause?
    • Low birth weight
    • Infant death
    • Poor motor movement
    • Lower intelligence
  103. What complications can caffeine-use during pregnancy cause?
    More than one cup a day often causes low birth weight and miscarriage
  104. What are the complications caused by herion/cocaine-use during pregnancy cause?
    • Children become:
    • Jittery
    • ADHD prone
    • Physical defects (usually on the face)
  105. What complications can marijuana-use during pregnancy cause?
    • Children have:
    • Smaller head size (which means less brain development)
    • Colic (crying for more than 3 hours a day for more than 3 days a week for 3 weeks)
    • Sleep problems
    • Attention loss
    • Memory deficits
    • Academic problems
  106. What complications can tobacco-use during pregnancy cause?
    • Low birthweight
    • Lung cancer & asthma
    • Poor memory
    • ADHD
  107. What complications can alcohol-use during pregnancy cause?
    • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
    • 1) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
    • 2) Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (p-FAS)
    • 3) Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND)
  108. What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)?
    • The most severe form of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, distinguished by slow physical growth, facial abnormalities, and brain injury
    • Usually affects children whose mothers drank heavily during most or all of pregnancy
  109. What is Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (p-FAS)?
    • A form of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder characterized by facial abnormalities and brain injury, but less severe than fetal alcohol syndrome
    • Usually seen in children whose mothers rank alcohol in smaller quantities during pregnancy
  110. What is Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND)?
    The least severe form of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, involving brain injury but with typical physical growth and absence of facial abnormalities
  111. What complications can exposure to radiation during pregnancy cause?
    • Increase in likelihood of childhood cancer
    • Lower intelligence
    • Language and emotional deficits
    • (can be caused by x-rays during pregnancy)
  112. What can exposure to mercury during pregnancy cause?
    • Physical deformities
    • Mental retardation
    • Abnormal speech
    • Difficulty in chewing and swallowing
    • Uncoordinated movements
    • Disrupted production and migration of neurons, causing brain damage
  113. What can exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy cause?
    • Low birth weight
    • Discolored skin
    • Deformities of the gums and nails
    • Brain-wave abnormalities
    • Delayed cognitive development
    • Attention and memory difficulties
    • Lower intelligence test scores in childhood
  114. What can exposure to lead during pregnancy cause?
    • Prematurity
    • Low birth weight
    • Brain damage
    • A wide variety of physical defects
    • Slightly poorer mental and motor development
  115. What can exposure to dioxins during pregnancy cause?
    • Brain, immune system, and thyroid damage
    • Increased incidence of breast and uterine cancers in mothers
    • Affected men father ~twice as many girls as boys [dioxin seems to impair the fertility of the Y-bearing sperm before conception]
  116. What complications can encounters wih infectious diseases during pregnancy cause?
    • Miscarriage
    • Physical malformations
    • Mental retardation
    • Low birthweight & prematurity
  117. Which infectious diseases can cause miscarriage?
    • Cytomegalovirus
    • Herpes simplex 2 (genital herpes)
    • Mumps
    • Rubella (German measles)
    • Chlamydia
    • Syphilis
    • Tuberculosis
    • Malaria
    • Toxoplasmosis
  118. Which infectious diseases can cause physical malformations?
    • AIDS (?)
    • Chickenpox
    • Cytomegalovirus
    • Herpes simplex 2 (gential herpes)
    • Mumps (?)
    • Rubella (German measles)
    • Chlamydia (?)
    • Syphilis
    • Tuberculosis (?)
    • Toxoplasmosis
  119. Which infectious diseases can cause mental retardation?
    • AIDS
    • Chickenpox
    • Cytomgalovirus
    • Herpes simplex 2 (genital herpes)
    • Rubella (German measles)
    • Syphilis
    • Tuberculosis
    • Toxoplasmosis
  120. Which infectious diseases can cause low birth weight and prematurity?
    • AIDS (?)
    • Chickenpox
    • Cytomegalovirus
    • Herpes simplex 2 (genital herpes)
    • Rubella (German measles)
    • Chlamydia
    • Syphilis (?)
    • Tuberculosis
    • Malaria
    • Toxoplasmosis
  121. What are some maternal factors of the health of the prenatal baby?
    • Exercise
    • Nutrition
    • Emotional stress
    • Maternal age
    • Previous births
  122. What is Rh factor incompatibility?
    • A condition that arises when the Rh protein is present in the fetus's blood but not in the mother's, causing the mother to build up antibodies.
    • If these enter the fetus's system, they destroy red blood cells, reducing oxygen supply to organs and tissues.
  123. What are some reasons other than financial hardship that some mothers have for not seeking early prenatal care?
    • Situational barriers
    • Personal barriers
  124. What are situational barriers?
    • Difficulty finding a doctor, getting an appointment, and arranging transportation
    • Insensitive/unsatisfying experiences with clinic staff
    • One of the reasons why some mothers don't seek early prenatal care
  125. What are personal barriers?
    • Psychological stress
    • The demands of taking care of other young children
    • Family crises
    • Lack of knowledge about signs of pregnancy and benefits of prenatal care
    • Ambivalence about the pregnancy
    • One of the reasons why some mothers don't seek early prenatal care
  126. What are the three stages of childbirth?
    • Dilation and effacement of the cervix
    • Pushing
    • Delivery of the Placenta
  127. What happens during the first stage of childbirth?
    • "Dilation and effacement of the cervix"
    • The mother feels more frequent and powerful contractions
    • The contractions cause the uterus to widen and thin out
    • Transition (MOST PAINFUL) is reached when the frequency and strength of the contractions are at the peak and the cervix opens completely
    • *Longest stage of childbirth!
    • ~12-14 hours with the first child
    • ~4-6 hours with later births
  128. What happens during the second stage of childbirth?
    • "Pushing"
    • Mothers push with each contraction
    • ~20-50 minutes (first childbirth lasts longest)
  129. What happens during the third stage of childbirth?
    • "Delivery of the placenta"
    • After the baby's out, contractions are still there, but they're not as bad as before the baby was delivered
    • ~5-10 minutes
  130. What is the APGAR scale?
    A rating system used to assess the newborn baby's physical condition immediately after birth
  131. What are the components of the APGAR scale?
    • Appearance (skin color)
    • Pulse (heart rate)
    • Grimace (reflexes)
    • Activity (muscle tone)
    • Respiration (breathing)
  132. How is appearance rated on the APGAR scale?
    • 0 = blue body, arms, and legs
    • 1 = body pink with blue arms and legs
    • 2 = body, arms, and legs completely pink
  133. How is pulse rated on the APGAR scale?
    • 0 = no heartbeat
    • 1 = under 100 beats per minute
    • 2 = 100 to 140 beats per minute
  134. How is grimace rated on the APGAR scale?
    • 0 = no response
    • 1 = weak reflexive response
    • 2 = strong reflexive response
  135. How is activity rated on the APGAR scale?
    • 0 = completely limp
    • 1 = weak movements of arms and legs
    • 2 = strong movement of arms and legs
  136. How is respiration rated on the APGAR scale?
    • 0 = no breathing for 60 seconds
    • 1 = irregular, shallow breathing
    • 2 = strong breathing and crying
  137. What is a good score on the APGAR scale?
  138. What APGAR score indicates that the baby needs some assistance?
  139. What APGAR score indicates that the baby needs immediate medical attention?
    less than 3
  140. What was the popular approach to childbirth before the late 1800s in western society?
    Home birthing
  141. What was the popular approach to childbirth post-industrial revolution in western society?
    Hospital birthing
  142. What was the popular approach to childbirth during the 1950s-1960s in western society?
    Movement toward natural birthing
  143. What was the popular approach to childbirth today in western society?
    Centers (some home birthing)
  144. What activities are included in preparing for natural/prepared childbirth?
    • Classes: to learn about anatomy, birthing process and labor, etc. (designed to reduce fear)
    • Relaxation and breathing techniques: designed to calm down and relax the mother
    • Labor coach: is there to back up the mother for motivation, relaxation, and supporting her body at all times
  145. What medical interventions during childbirth occur in industrialized cultures?
    • Fetal monitoring
    • Medication
    • Instrument delivery
    • Cesarean delivery
    • Induced labor
  146. How is fetal monitoring a medical intervention during childbirth?
    • An electronic instrument goes around the stomach and track the baby's heart rate
    • OR a contraption goes through the cervix and has contact with the baby's skull (more intrusive)
    • Used in >80% of USA births
  147. How is medication a medical intervention during childbirth?
    • Analgesics are pain killers that may be given in mild doses during labor to help a mother relax
    • Anesthetics are stronger pain killers that block sensation
    • The most common approach to controlling pain during labor is epidural analgesia (which is a pain-relieving drug that is delivered continuously through a catheter into a small space in the lower spine)
    • Used in >80% of USA births
  148. How is instrument delivery a medical intervention during childbirth?
    • Forceps: metal clamps around the baby's head to pull out (increases risk of brain damage and head injury in baby & injury of mother's tissues)
    • Vacuum Extraction: plastic cup suctions on baby's head (less likely to tear mother's tissues, but causes bleeding beneath baby's skin and on the outside of the skill in ~ 15% of cases and more serious complications, including bleeding within the eye and beneath the skull, causing brain damage in 5% of cases)
    • Neither are used very often
  149. How is cesarean delivery a medical intervention during childbirth?
    • It's usually done if:
    • -the baby is in breech position (happens in 1/25 births)
    • -the mother is physically incapable to push
    • -early childbirth occurs
    • -the mother prefers to schedule the birth
    • -the mother has a disease that might transfer to the baby if vaginal delivery is used
    • ~30% of all births
  150. How is induced labor a medical intervention during childbirth?
    • "making labor happen"
    • they give the mother medication that causes her water to break, which then causes the rest of the birthing process to occur
    • also slows things down a LOT
    • most common drug = oxitocin (causes contractions to be harder, longer, and closer to each other)
    • 20-25% of births
  151. What is anoxia?
    • Inadequate oxygen supply
    • The baby's skin color isn't pink; it's bluish green
    • Can be caused by:
    • -cerebral palsy
    • -umbilical chord wrapping around the baby
    • -placenta abruption (placenta detaches from uterus during birth instead of after birth)
    • -placenta previa (implantation of zygote occurs low in the uterus, so when the cervix dilates, the part of the placenta breaks)
    • -failing to breathe after birth
    • -respiratory distress syndrome (generally associated with preterm babies)
  152. What are preterm babies?
    • Babies born 3 weeks before their due date
    • They may be appropriate weight for the length of pregnancy
  153. What are small-for-date babies?
    • Babies may be born at due date or preterm
    • Below expected weight for length of pregnancy
    • Some small-for-date babies have weakened abilities to manage stress
    • associated with death, brain damage, and many infections of various kinds
    • Children & adolescents tend to be of lower IQ
    • Smaller in stature
    • Less attentive (do poorly in school)
    • Socially immature 
    • Tend to be malnourished often because of dysfunction in placenta
  154. What are the interventions for preterm and small-for-date babies?
    • Use of respirators, feeding tubes, medication, and isolette (the box with filtered air and temperature control)
    • Infant stimulation (ex: suspended hammocks, waterbed, recording of mother's heartbeat)
    • Kangaroo skin to skin contact (goes back to evolutionary things like protection)
  155. What are some newborn reflexes?
    • Eye blink
    • Rooting (head turns toward stimulation)
    • Sucking
    • Swimming (goes away between 4-6 months)
    • Moro 
    • Palmar grasp
    • Stepping
    • Babinski
  156. What is moro?
    When you hold an infant horizontally on its back and let the head drop slightly, or produce a sudden loud sound against the surface supporting the infant, thee infant makes an "embracing" motion by arching back, extending legs, throwing arms outward, and then bringing arms in toward the body
  157. What is the Palmar grasp?
    When you place your finger in the infant's hand and press against its palm, the infant spontaneously grasps your finger
  158. What is the Babinski reflex?
    When you stroke the sole of an infant from toe to heel, the baby's toes fan out and curl as the foot twists in
  159. What are the five infant states of arousal?
    • Regular (NREM) sleep
    • Irregular (REM) sleep
    • Drowsiness
    • Quiet alertness
    • Waking activity and crying
  160. What happens during an infant's regular (NREM) sleep?
    • The infant is at full rest and shows little or no body activity
    • Eyelids are closed
    • No eye movements occur
    • Face is relaxed
    • Breathing is slow and regular
    • Lasts 8-9 hours daily in a newborn
  161. What happens during an infant's irregular (REM) sleep?
    • Gentle limb movements
    • Occasional stirring and facial grimaces
    • Eyelids are closed, but occasional rapid eye movements can be seen beneath them
    • Breathing is irregular
    • Lasts 8-9 hours daily in a newborn
  162. What happens when an infant is drowsy?
    • The infant is either falling asleep or waking up
    • Body is less active than in irregular sleep but more active than in regular sleep
    • Eyes open and close; when open, they have a glazed look
    • Breathing is even, but somewhat faster than in regular sleep
    • Varies in duration
  163. What happens when an infant is quiet and alert?
    • The infant's body is relatively inactive
    • Eyes open and attentive
    • Breathing is even
    • Lasts 2-3 hours daily in a newborn
  164. What happens during an infant's waking activity and crying?
    • The infant shows frequent bursts of uncoordinated body activity
    • Breathing is very irregular
    • Face may be relaxed or tense and wrinkled
    • Crying may occur
    • Lasts 1-4 hours daily in a newborn
  165. What is SIDS?
    • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
    • The unexpected death, usually during the night, of an infant younger than 1 year of age that remains unexplained after thorough investigation
  166. What is the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)?
    It evaluates the baby's reflexes, muscle tone, state changes, responsiveness to physical and social stimuli, and other reactions