Small Animal Sx Nursing
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This refers to a process that detrimentally interferes with function of an organism
This is a living organism too small to see with the naked eye
This refers to a microbe when it is capable of causing a disease
Name the 8 etiology classes:
- 1. bacteria
- 2. virus
- 3. fungus
- 4. protozoan
- 5. metazoan
- 6. Pleural pneumonia-like organism
- 7. chlamydia
- 8. rickettsia
This is the relationship between a parasite and its host that cause disease
This is a term that describes microbes normally found in healthy animals
This is the sum of all factors contributing to the ability of an animal to overcome invasion of pathogens
This refers pathogens in the blood or tissues of a patient
This is a type of cleaning that results in the complete absence of microbes including spores.
A technique that keeps that body free of most microorganisms
This technique reduces microbes on all material
Any item that has not been sterilized is considered:
This is any cleaning measure intended to prevent disease and promote health
This is the removal of most microbes with the exception of spores from any inanimate object
This is the removal of most microbes with the exception of spores from the skin
Two primary factors that prevented the development of surgery
- 1. lack of analgesics/anesthetics
- 2. inability to prevent post-op infections
In 1676, developed the first lens for microscopes that was able to visualize bacteria
1868 the transmission of tuberculosis was first demonstrated by:
In 1892 these two proved their theory of intermediate transmission of Texas Fever
- Fredrick Kilborne, DVM
- Theobald Smith, MD
The etiology for Texas Fever
Intermediate host for Texas Fever
In 1876, who first isolated and proved Bacillus anthracis was the cause of Anthrax?
In 1882, who isolated the cause of Tuberculosis?
The etiology of Tuberculosis:
In 1796, who developed the vaccine for small pox?
Sir Alfred Jenner
In 1861, who proved microbe control with hygenic measures a.k.a the father of medical asepsis
In 1888, who developed the tetanus toxin?
In 1898, who demonstrated the antigen/antibody theory of immunity?
In 1927, who discovered penicillin?
In 1940, the synthetic production of penicillin for use in WWII was demonstrated by these 3 men?
Koch, Florey, and Chain
In 1954, who developed the first effected vaccine against polio?
This english surgeon proved that infection was caused by microorganisms and is known as the father of surgical asepsis
What substance did Lister soak into his dressings?
What substance did Lister use as a disinfectant in surgery?
Name 5 things Louis Pasteur is known for:
- 1. disproved spontaneous generation
- 2. developed the theory of aseptic technique
- 3. developed the first vaccine - anthrax
- 4. developed the first vaccine and treatment for rabies exposure
- 5. developed the process of pasteurization
This class of organisms are all mobile as well as form a cyst at one point in their life cycle
These non-chlorophyll bearing plants cannot make their own food, thus all live as parasites.
Fungi can be separated into two classes:
This class of microorganisms have three shape and are further separated by whichever color of Gram stain they uptake
What are the 3 shapes of bacteria?
bacillus, cocci, spiral
What type of bacteria stains blue?
What type of bacteria stains red?
These organisms are considered obligate intracellular parasites that must use an arthropod as a host in some stage of its life cycle
These organisms are similar to rickettsiae but are more known for infecting birds
These organisms are the smallest discovered so far
Pleuropneumonia-like organisms (mycoplasma)
4 methods of sterilization
- 1. Radiation heat (dry)
- 2. Moist heat (autoclave)
- 3. Chemical (Glutaraldehyde(Cidex))
- 4. Gas (ethylene oxide/plasma hydrogen peroxide)
This method of dry heat microbe control involves removal of water from the immediate environment
This method of dry heat microbe control is not often used because materials are complete destroyed preventing reuse.
This method of dry heat microbe control is economical but takes extensive times and often destroys materials after repeated use
Hot Air Oven
This method of moist heat microbe control involves water at temperature of 60 C or above.
This method of moist heat microbe control involves water at 100 C but may not kill some spores or viruses
This method of moist heat microbe control is known as live steam and also insufficient at killing all forms of microbial life.
Free Flowing Steam
This is the method of choice in moist heat microbe control where items are "autoclaved" subjected to high heat, pressure for a certain mount of time
Steam Under Pressure
Parameters for Steam Under Pressure method
- Heat: 250-270 F
- Pressure: 15psi
- Time: 30 min
This method of moist heat microbe control used sound waves but was also found to be ineffective
The autoclaves at Tomball are made by:
Sterilization by autoclaving and Cidex account for what percentage in a common outpatient clinic?
This method of radiation microbe control uses light waves that are partially absorbed by microbial proteins which destroys nucleic acids in some bacteria
What is the range of the full ultraviolet spectrum?
2000 to 4000 angstroms
What is the range of ultraviolet light that is used to destroy the bacterial nucleic acids?
This method of radiation microbe control uses energy with shorter wavelengths than ultraviolet light that include x-rays, neutrons, alpha, beta and gamma rays.
This method of microbe control is used to purify gases or liquids
This was the original chemical method of "cold sterilization" considered to be carcinogenic
Formaldehyde - available as Formalin 37%
This chemical method of microbe control is believed to be the only true chemical sterilization
What are the disadvantages of Glutaraldehyde?
- 1. Cannot be used on cloth and rubber because of the time needed for true sterilization
- 2. Cost
- 3. Shelf life - once constituted lasts only for 28 days
What is the manufacturer's recommended time for Glutaraldehyde to achieve sterilization?
If a bard-parker cold pack is opened what is done that causes a restart of your time count?
- 1. An instrument is removed
- 2. An instrument is added
Lengths of times for "Cold Sterilization"
Stabilized Hydrogen Peroxide:
- 10 hours (mfr rec. 24 hrs)
- 18 hours
- 6 hours
This chemical method of microbe control has strong bactericidal properties because it coagulates proteins
These chemical methods of microbe control include the halogens which are bactericidal
This chemical method of microbe control is usually added to scrub formulations and accounts for their suds
These chemical methods of microbe control are surface active agents effective against gram positive/negative bacteria which include Quaternary Ammonium Componds
Name the main soap we use here at Tomball.
Name two Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (not necessarily for cleaning)
- Glycopyrrolate (Robinul)
- Benzalkonium chloride (Zephrin-antiseptic, Roccal D-disinfectant)
These chemical methods of microbe control include carbolic acid which is still used today as a standard to determine antibacterial use.
This chemical method of microbe control provide sterilization via a gas that is irritating to skin/mucous membranes, explosive and flammable but useful with heat sensitive items
What is the specific machine that uses ethylene oxide for sterilization?
This is chemical method of microbe control that provides sterilization via a gas often listed as a filtration method
What is the specific machine that uses hydrogen peroxide for sterilization?
Sterrad by Johnson and Johnson
Disadvantages of sterrad sterilization
- can leave a residue
- can be corrosive
American Animal Hospital Association
List Cleaning Equipment/Supplies
- Wet/Dry vacuum
- Disposable gloves/cleaning cloths/sponges
- Disinfectants (Roccal D)
- Trash liners
What must you wear whenever you enter the prep-room and surgery suite?
Cap and mask
What must be done (usually by pre-op team) 1 hour before surgery
Wipe down flat surfaces on furniture/lights that may have collected dust overnight
Instrument Cleaning Procedure:
- cold water soak
- all ratchets should be unlocked
- brush clean all grooves/hinges (NOT bladed surfaces)
- U/S cleaner 15 min (pinch of cleaner & complete immersion)
- Milk bath 15 min (diluted solution)
- Blot dry
- Assemble packs according to color/wrap
Procedure manuals for pack preparation should include:
- 1. supplies needed for pack preparation
- 2. instrument replacement information
- 3. picture I.D. of instruments and pack contents
- 4. names of individual packs
What is the name of the detergent that goes into the ultrasonic cleaner
Factors of ideal wrapping material:
- 1. Selective permeability
- 2. Memory - returns to flat position
- 3. Resistance to repeated temperature/pressure exposure
- 4. Flexibility
How many threads per square inch to cloth wraps need to have to be ideal?
140 to 288/sq inch
Why is ultrasonic cleaning useful?
Effective on cleaning inaccessible surfaces on instruments
Why aren't bladed surfaces cleaned with a brush?
brushing will dull blades
List items that should be checked after each use
- Anesthesia machines
- Dental scalers/polishers
- Laundry equipment
- Monitoring devices
- Surgical lights/tables
- Thermal water pads
- Ultrasonic cleaner
- Ultraviolet lights
- Vacuum cleaner
- Ventilation system
Pack Preparation Supplies
- Super edisonite
- Soaking containers
- Instrument milk
- Autoclave indicator tape
- Pen for date/pack description/initials
- Indicator strip in pack (temp/pressure)
Textile pack wrapping should be done with this type of technique.
How should the outer wrap be sealed?
- Autoclave tape:
- 1. Type of pack
- 2. Sizes of drapes/gowns (amounts as well)
- 3. Initials
- 4. Date wrapped
Why should packs not be pressed up against the wall in an autoclave?
Material will burn
What is the first part that will fail on an autoclave?
The sealing gasket
When can the door be popped open after autoclaving?
After the steam has vented and the temperature has dropped to 120 F
Use of the Steam Autoclave:
- 1. make sure drain knob is turned to closed
- 2. pour 1 gal of water in the bottom
- 3. wrapped items placed inside (no touching walls)
- 4. close door and switch toggle to FAST
- 5. Set timer (30 min instruments, 15 min plastics/gloves)
- 6. When done, allow to vent and temp down to 120 - open door.
These items are sterilized for 30 minutes in a steam autoclave
- surgical packs
- textile packs (gowns/drapes etc)
- fluids over 1L
These items are sterilized for 20 minutes in a steam autoclave
- individually wrapped instruments
- syringes individually wrapped in textiles
These items are sterilized for 15 minutes in a steam autoclave
- unwrapped instruments
- fluids (0.5 - 1L)
What 4 environmental factors lower the shelf life of sterilized items?
- 1. Humidity (^)
- 2. Altitude (v)
- 3. Light (^)
- 4. Temperature (^)
Factors that will render sterile packs contaminated:
- 1. getting wet
- 2. broken or loose sealing tape
- 3. missing/illegible date
- 4. punctures in outer wrap
- 5. dropping pack on floor
If stored in a dust free closed cabinet, how long can packs be considered sterile?
If stored in an open shelf, how long can packs be considered sterile?
Commercially sterilized packs without expiration dates can be considered sterile for how long?
What are the two gloving techniques
Open and Closed
The Sterile Zone includes:
- Surgical site
- Sterile drapes
- Instrument tray and covering sterile drape
- Inner surface of sterile pack
- The fronts of scrubbed personnel from shoulder to waist and arm/hands held up
When is a sterile item or area within the sterile zone is contaminated?
If it comes into contact with a non-sterile person or item
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