Brain Stem II & Cranial Nerves
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Olfactory Foramen :
CI - Olfactory Nerve
Optic foramen :
CN:II - Optic nerve
Superior Orbital Fissure :
CN: III , VI /opthalmic , V, VI
Foramen Rotundum :
Foramen Ovale :
Foramen spinosum :
Middle Meningeal Artery
Foramen Lacerum :
Internal Auditory Canal :
CN:VIII - Vestibulocochlear , CN: VII - Facial
Jugular Foramen :
- CN: IX-glossopharyngeal CN: X -Vagus
- CN: XI -Accessory
Hypoglossal Canal :
Carotid Foramen :
Label the diagram ?
Olfactory nerve function ?
Optic Nerve Function ?
Oculomotor Nerve :
Eye movements and pupil constriction
Trochlear Nerve :
Trigeminal Nerve :
Facial sensation , muscles of mastication
Facial Nerve :
Facial expression , taste , salivation
Vestibulocochlear Nerve :
Hearing , equilibrium sense
Glossopharyngeal Nerve :
Pharyngeal muscles , carotid body reflexes , salivation
Vagus Nerve :
- Parasympathetics to most organs ,
- Laryngeal muscles (voice) ,
- pharyngeal muscles ,
- aortic arch reflexes ,
Spinal Accessory Nerve :
Hypoglossal Nerve :
What is the mnemonic for somatic and motor sensory ?
What is Anosmia ?
- Olfactory problems
- Head Injury
- Virus infection
Which nerve has parasympathetic traits ?
What is the mesencephalic nucleus ?
a thin ribbon of cells that runs along the fourth ventricle and cerebral aqueduct, just outside the periaqueductal grey
Describe the Trigemino-thalamic Pathway ?
- -Axons of main sensory nucleus neurons
- -decussate in rostral pons and
- -ascends to terminate in the ventral posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus
- -Axons of spinal nucleus of trigeminal follow similar path
- -VPM neurons project to face area of somatosensory cortex
Mesencephalic nucleus is only instance where primary sensory neurons are in the CNS instead of peripheral ganglion ? T or F
What is Trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux) ?
most common recurrent episodes of brief severe pain in the distribution ofV2 or V3 Cause unknown, possible pressure from blood vessel Occurs in MS
Cranial Nerve VII: Facial Nerve Explain ?
Visceral sensory :
- -Motor function: muscles of facial expression, stapedius muscle and part of digastric muscle.
- -Parasympathetic function: innervation to lacrimal glands and salivary glands except for parotid
- -Visceral sensory function: taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue
- -Somatosensory function: touch sensation from region near external auditory meatus.
Label the Diagram ?
Motor cortex or corticobulbar tract lesions cause?
-Lesions of facial nucleus/nerve cause ?
-contralateral face paralysis/weakness sparing the forehead
-ipsilateral paralysis of whole face.
Upper motor neuron lesions spare what part of the head ? Lower motor neuron lesions cause paralysis in what part of the face ?
Upper and lower face.
Describe Bell’s Palsy ?
All divisions of facial nerve are impaired acutely and then gradually recover.
Cause unknown, but viral or inflammatory process suspected.
- Unilateral upper and lower face paralysis
- Patients often have pain near the ear
- Hyperacusis common,
- -Dry eye 80% recover fully within 3 weeks
- Some have residual weakness
- Crocodile tears
- Brainstem lesions
Corneal Reflex ?
Lesions of trigeminal, facial nucleus or facial nerve may cause loss of the corneal reflex.
The membranous labyrinth of the cochlea encloses the endolymph-filled what ?
The two compartments of the bony labyrinth, which house the perilymph, are called the ?
Scala media is the receptor organ it is also called the ?
scalae vestibuli and tympani
How come there is not unilateral hearing loss if damage is done proximal to the cochlear nerve.
Does more information ascend contralaterally or ipsilaterally
Auditory information ascends bilaterally after leaving the cochlea.
Semicircular canals detect what ?
Saccule and utricle detect what two things ?
angular acceleration around 3 orthogonal axes
linear acceleration and head tilt.
What is the function of the Vestibular System?
- Muscle tone
- Eye position in response to head movement
Why are these important
Lateral vestibulospinal tract:
Medial vestibulospinal tract:
Medial longitudinal fasciculus:
-extends throughout spinal cord and functions in balance and extensor tone 2.
-only projects to cervical spinal levels and controls neck and head position muscles
-connects vestibular nuclei and CN nuclei III, IV, and VI; mediates vestibulo-ocular reflex
If you move your head to the left, you will excite which horizontal canal ?
What is the most common tumor for hearing loss is ? Where does it typically originate ?
Acoustic Neuroma -aschwannoma.
Where the 8th cranial nerve enters
Which nerve has no real nucleus to itself ?
Glossopharyngeal motor neurons are located where ?
Where are the preganglionic neurons of the Glossopharyngeal neurons ?
inferior salivatory nucleus
Visceral sensory function: Primary sensory neurons in the inferior glossopharyngeal ganglion project to?
Visceral sensory function: chemoreceptors and baroreceptors in carotid body. Primary sensory neurons in the inferior glossopharyngeal ganglion project to ?
rostral nucleus solitarius
caudal nucleus solitarius.
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