BI0004 - Lecture 6 - Vitamins and Minerals

Card Set Information

Author:
james14hunter
ID:
262588
Filename:
BI0004 - Lecture 6 - Vitamins and Minerals
Updated:
2014-02-18 11:30:31
Tags:
BI0004 Lecture Vitamins Minerals
Folders:
BI0004 - Lecture 6 - Vitamins and Minerals
Description:
BI0004 - Lecture 6 - Vitamins and Minerals
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user james14hunter on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
    • Function
    • Neural function
    • Protein metabolism
    • Carbohydrate metabolism
    • ATP synthesis

    • Main source
    • White meat/pork
    • Yeast
    • Cereal grains/bread
    • Some vegetables
    • Eggs

    • Deficiency
    • Beriberi (nervous system or cardiovascular system)
    • Neurological degeneration.
  2. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
    • Function
    • Central component of FAD and FMN cofactors.
    • Fat metabolism.
    • Protein metabolism.
    • Ketone Body reduction.

    • Main Source
    • Dairy products
    • Eggs
    • Leafy Vegetables
    • Kidney/Liver

    • Deficiency
    • Ariboflavinosis
    • Mouth Ulcers, cracks at corners of mouth
    • Inability to stand
  3. Vitamin C
    • Function
    • Antioxidant
    • ATP generation
    • Electron donor for several enzymes
    • Collagen hydroxylation

    • Main source
    • Auto-synthesis (from glucose)(most mammals)
    • Fruit (esp. Citrus)
    • Green plants (unstable)

    • Deficiency
    • Scurvy
  4. Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)
    • Function
    • Thiamine synthesis
    • Purine synthesis
    • Cell division

    • Main Source
    • Leafy Vegetables
    • Root Vegetables
    • Some seeds
    • Bakers Yeast

    • Deficiency¬†
    • Anaemia
    • Loss of appetite, weight loss
    • Neural tube defects (during embryo development)
  5. Vitamin A (retinol)
    • Function
    • Vision
    • Transcription
    • Embryonic development
    • Skin health

    • Main source
    • Liver
    • Carotenoids (coloured fruit/vegetables)

    • Deficiency
    • Blindness/Night-blindness

    May be toxic in excessive doses
  6. How can Vitamin A deficiency be tackled?
    • "Golden Rice"
    • Created to be rich in Vitamin A-rich Carotenoids (e.g. beta-carotene)
  7. Vitamin D (calciferols)
    • Function
    • Regulates mineral levels (calcium, phosphorus)
    • Calcification/decalcification

    • Main source
    • Synthesis (induced by sunlight)
    • Liver
    • Fish oils (e.g. cod liver oil)

    • Overdose
    • Hypercalcemia (early humans)
    • Build-up of waste products

    • Deficiency
    • Rickets (esp children; fortified milk)
    • Bone-softening
    • Osteomalacia
    • Association with Parkinson's disease
  8. How do animals obtain minerals?
    • Eating bone/antler
    • Calcium e.g. cuttlefish.
  9. Iron (Fe3+)
    • Function
    • Haemoglobin/pigments
    • Electron carrier in metabolism
    • Enzyme cofactor

    • Main Source
    • Liver
    • Pork loin
    • Oysters
    • Green vegetables; Spinach?
    • Peas, beans, pulses
    • Wholegrain cereals

    • Deficiency
    • Anaemia
    • Reduced immunity
  10. Magnesium (Mg2+)
    • Function
    • Co-factors in many enzymes
    • ATP synthesis
    • Structure of chlorophyll

    • Main Source
    • Green plants
    • >200mg/day

    • Deficiency
    • Chlorosis
    • Many neurological: Depression, lethargy/fatigue, ADHD, Insomnia.
  11. Potassium (K+)
    • Function
    • Homeostasis
    • Water balance
    • Acid-Base balance

    • Main Source
    • Most dietary sources
    • Liquid nutrition

    • Deficiency
    • Fatigue
    • Sensory deprivation
    • Mood Swings
  12. Calcium (Ca2+)
    • Function
    • Structure (bone, keratin)
    • Signalling

    • Main Source
    • Liquid diet
    • Milk
    • Bone/Horn/Exoskeleton
    • Green vegetables

    • Deficiency
    • Bone deficiency
    • Muscle Spasms
    • Neurological disorders
    • Lethargy
  13. What is calcium signalling?
    • Calcium is stored in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
    • Released in signalling
    • Used in neural transmission and muscle contraction.
  14. What is the Calcium cycle?
    The Ca2+ is released from bone by parathyroid hormone and vitamin D
  15. Copper (CU+)
    • Function
    • Co-factor
    • Electron Carrier

    • Main source
    • Diet (green vegetables)
    • Liquid diet

    • Deficiency
    • Anaemia
    • Chlorosis
    • Neurological disfunction
  16. Toxic materials are...
    Heavy minerals which are important in trace amounts, but dangerous in larger quantities

    Examples are Copper, Lead, Arsenic, Heavy metals, Radioactive metals.
  17. Lead
    • Leads to muscle wastage
    • Neurological disorders/tremors

    Through exhaust fumes, paint, pipes
  18. Copper
    Verdigre Poisoning - Vomiting and death
  19. Nitrogen
    • Amino Acid structure
    • Important in several biological reactions
    • Main source is plants
  20. How are minerals often taken up as?
    • Minerals are often taken up as salts.
    • e.g. Carbonate: CO32-
    • Nitrate: NO3-
    • Phosphate: PO43-
  21. Phosphorus
    • Component of Nucleic Acids
    • Inorganic phosphate
    • ATP/ADP
    • Ion Exchange
  22. Nitrogen
    • Nitrate/ite
    • Ammonia

    • Gained from Soil (fertiliser)
    • Animal excrement (Ammonium)
    • Nitrogen Fixation

    Haber Process
  23. Slide 38

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview