Interpersonal Chap 3

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  1. Perception
    • process to assign meaning to the world around us
    • comes from experience, observation, and socialization
  2. Selection
    • First step in perception process
    • some data are chosen to attend to, others to ignore
    • Helps us simplify our world
  3. What do we pay attention to?
    • Intense stimuli - louder, brighter
    • Repetition - dripping faucet
    • Contrast/change
    • influenced by motives
  4. Organization
    data arranged in a meaningful way
  5. How do we categorize info?
    • Physical constructs - appearance
    • role constructs - mom, social position
    • Interaction constructs - friendly, social behaviour
    • Psychological constructs - personality, insecure
  6. Stereotype
    • generalization about someone based on association or ASSURED association to members of a group
    • some degree of fact
    • helps us simplify
  7. Punctuation
    • determine causal order of events
    • how actions are interpreted depends on when interpreter thinks they occured
  8. Interpretation
    • attaching meaning to sense data
    • decode
  9. Factors that influence how we interpret events
    • degree of involvement with other person - family vs stranger
    • past experiences
    • assumption about human behaviour
    • expectations/anticipation - eg. we'll talk later
    • knowledge - about someone's situation
    • self concept
    • relationship satisfaction
  10. Pysiological Influences
    • 5 senses
    • age
    • health, fatigue, hunger
    • biological cycles
    • psychological challanges
  11. Cultural differences
    • non verbal behaviours
    • value of talk - direct vs. indirect
  12. social roles
    • necessary, but when too rigid can cause problems, comm breakdowns
    • why are we given roles to play? Helps society function
    • Gender roles
  13. Gender Roles
    • Sex = biological differences
    • gender = social, psychological behaviours, LEARNED
    • 4 psychological sex types
  14. 4 Psychological sex types
    • 1. Masculine - report type, practical, BENEFITS of relationships
    • 2. Feminine - value rapport talk, share feelings, nurture
    • 3. Androgynous - balanced degree of traits, assertive yet sensitive
    • 4. Undifferentiated - Display neither trait. Neutral
  15. Occupational roles
    type of work we do influences view of the world and how we chose to behave
  16. Self esteem
    • high self esteem, those who have it often think well of others
    • low self esteem, those who have it often think poorly of others
  17. Social Behaviours
    • how people behave influences how we percieve them
    • Implicit Personality Theories (grouping) - one trait forms general impression about an individual
    • Halo effect - form positive impression on basis of 1 positive characteristic, and opposite for negative characteristic
  18. Implicit Personality Theories (grouping)
    one trait forms general impression about an individual
  19. Halo effect
    form positive impression on basis of 1 positive characteristic, and opposite for negative characteristic
  20. Stereotyping
    • Prejudice - irrational belief, prejudge, no facts, based on association w/ other group
    • Discrimination - acting on prejudice
    • Racism - colour
    • Ethnocentrism - ethnicity, tradition, culture
    • sexism, ageism, able-ism - disabililty
  21. Attribution
    • process of attaching meaning to behaviour
    • as a result of internal or external forces
    • sometimes these can be distorted depending on perception of person. eg employee you don't like
  22. Tendencies in Perception
    • Attribution
    • consistency - past behaviour
    • distinctness - unique to circumstance 
    • Consensus - everyone else
    • we judge ourselves more charitably - self serving bias
    • We pay attention to negative characteristics of someone than positive, and ourselves - eg lance armstrong. Need to use 5 to 1 ratio
    • we are influenced by what is more obvious eg. kid lashes out at another, its lashing kids fault
    • We cling to first impressions, halo effect, quick assumptions about others. 30s to make, 60s to change or secure
    • We assume others are similar or different to us eg I'm assertive therefore everyone needs to be spoken to directly. This can lead to problems and stereotypes
  23. Self serving bias
    tendency to interpret  and explain info in a way that casts perceiver in most favorable manner
  24. Perception Checking
    • 3 part method to verify accuracy of interpretations
    • 1. Description of behviour you noticed
    • 2. More than 2 possible interpretations of behaviour
    • 3. Request for clarification about how to interpret behaviour
  25. Considerations in perception checking
    • Completeness - if more judgement is risked, more perception check needed. Can be quick.
    • Nonverbal congruency - what you say needs to be consistent with how you look
    • Cultural Rules - high context culture, ability to read nonverbal cues and can be disrespectful to call someone out. Low context culture, less observant to nonverbal cues, I don't know what you're thinking
  26. Empathy
    • project oneself into another persons point of view
    • experience others thoughts and feelings
    • has 3 dimensions
    • 1. Perspective talking
    • 2. Emotional dimension
    • 3. Genuine concern for other
Card Set
Interpersonal Chap 3
Chapter 3 interpersonal
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