Health and Safety

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  1. 1st Act protecting Canadian (date/effectiveness)
    1885 but was ineffective
  2. Worker’s Compensation Board
    1891 Ontario created its first Worker’s Compensation Board but legislation for WC did not appear until 1915
  3. The Hazardous Product Act (when, purpose)
    • (1969)
    • Prohibits and sale or import of specific items eg. Children’s furniture painted with lead paint
    • Establishes hazard identification and labeling requirements eg. Household cleaners
  4. Canadian Labour Code (when purpose)
    • (1968)      
    • Deals with safety regulations, duties of the employer and employee under federal jurisdiction
  5. James ham story
    • In the 1970’s……
    • Uranium miners in Elliot Lake became alarmed about the high incidence of lung cancer and silicosis
    • They went on strike over health and safety conditions
    • The government appointed a Royal Commission to investigate health and safety in mines
    • Chaired by Dr. James Ham, it became known as the Ham Commission
    • Dr. Ham came up with over 100 recommendations
  6. Dr. Ham 6 recommendations
    • 1.H&S would be consolidated under the Ministry of Labour
    • 2.Mandatory establishment of joint H&S committees
    • 3.Safety related qualifications for supervisors and workers
    • 4.Safety related duties of employers
    • 5.Provision of defined medical surveillance and the keeping of records
    • 6.The 3 rights of the worker (the right to know, the right to participate and the right to refuse unsafe work)
  7. 3 rights of the worker
    • the right to know
    • the right to participate
    • the right to refuse unsafe work
  8. The Ontario Occupational Health and Safety Act (year)
  9. The establishment of the Canadian Centre for OHS (year)
  10. Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act (year)
  11. WHMIS is added to the OHSA (year)
  12. Major revision to the Workers Compensation Act
    • Criminal code change : Bill C-45 (2004) (serious penalties with violations resulting in death)
    • Bill 168 (2010) (more protection from violence and harassment in the workplace)
    • Bill 160 (2011) (bunch of crap, training, policies, recommendations etc)
  13. Who isn’t covered by the act
    • family farms      
    • domestic workers      
    • teachers      
    • self-employed or anything done in private homes
  14. Duties of the supervisor
    • (a) Observe the health and safety act and regulations
    • (b) Wear/use PPE
    • (2) Additional duties of supervisor
    •        (a) Must disclose to the worker known potential risk
    •        (b) Provide the worker with written rules and laws for safety procedures
    •        (c) Use preventative measures at all times to ensure protection of workers
  15. Duties of the worker
    • (a) Work in agreement with the requirements of the Health and Safety Act
    • (b) Use or wear the prescribed equipment and clothes by his or employer
    • (c) Report to appropriate authority the lack of equipment or equipment that is not in good conditions,
    • (d) Notify the appropriate authority about the breach of the Health and Safety Act or any possible known danger

    • No worker will
    • (a) Remove any protective device required to do the work safely
    • (b) Use any equipment or work in a manner that would put themselves or others in danger
    • (c) Participate in any pranks, contests, unnecessary running, or rough play

    Workers do not have to participate in a medical surveillance program unless they give consent
  16. Employer must
    • (a) protect the health and safety of the workers by providing all information, instructions and supervision
    • (b) provide employees medical info in the event of an accident
    • (c) when appointing a supervisor, make sure they are “competent” as defined by the OHSAct section1(1)
    • (d) make sure the worker OR person in authority is aware of the hazards and specifications of the materials they are working with
    • (e) assist and co-operate with a health and safety representative and/or health and safety committee  when they are carrying out their functions
  17. Purpose and powers of a Joint H&S Committee:
    • Identify situations that may be a source of danger or hazard to workers
    • Evaluate any potential hazards·  
    • Recommend remedial action·  
    • Follow up on any implemented recommendations that they put in place
    • Make recommendations for the improvement of health and safety workers·  
    • Monitor program measures and procedures in accordance with health and safety
  18. How does the JH&S Committee operate?
    • The committee must meet/hold meetings and keep minutes of the proceeding at least once every 3 months   
    • A committee must be established where there are 20 or more workers regularly employed, construction sites/projects and where toxic chemicals are used·  
    • The committee performs regular inspections of the workplace
  19. What is the “Certified Member” of the JHSC:
    • A Certified Member has received special training in occupational health and safety and has been certified by the Workplace Safety Insurance Board (WSIB).
    • Two requirements need to be met.·  
    • Part One: Consists of basic certification, which covers overall knowledge of health and safety that applies to all workplaces. This includes health and safety law, hazard identification and control, investigation techniques and prevention resources.
    • Part two: Consists of specific workplace hazard training focusing on significant hazards within your specific workplace; Learning how to assess those hazards and ways to control/eliminate them.·  
    • Every workplace needs to have at least one Certified Member that is a worker and one Certified Member that is management.
  20. The rights and duties of the Certified Member:
    • Conduct the monthly audits, (but it is not necessary). i.e. carry out inspections of the workplace.
    • Can order the employer to stop work that is dangerous to any worker.
    • Promotes and raises awareness of health and safety issues within the workplace.
    • Designates one or more members to investigate cases where a worker was killed or injured, and inspect the place where the accident occurred.
    • Investigates complaints of dangerous working conditions.
    • Be present at the investigation of a work refusal.
    • Inform the committee situations that may be hazardous to workers.
  21. Purpose of JHS Rep
    • workplace # employees regularly exceeds five but is less than 20.
    • it is the employees, and not the employer’s choice, to designate their representative.
    • However, management or any workers who exercise managerial functions are unable to appoint themselves or become a health and safety representative.
    • It is the employer’s duty to ensure training and effective power is implemented to the representative in order to perform proper health and safety inspections.
    • Workplace health and safety inspection training and the inspections themselves are to be held during working hours,
    • Depending on the work environment and industry, scheduled full inspections are either conducted once a month unless otherwise specified by the employer.
    • Routine inspections may be conducted in certain areas of the workplace once a month and the physical inspection of the workplace as a whole needs to be conducted at least once a year.
  22. Powers of JHS Rep
    • has the right to gather information from the employer regarding any previous inspections or test results of materials or equipment that may have been conducted.
    • They are to be consulted about and be present at any testing which needs to be completed on the worksite.
    • The health and safety representative has the ability to obtain any information regarding potential or existing hazards or hazardous products within the boundaries of the workplace; as well as receive health and safety information from other workplaces where the employers have a connection.
    • The representative also has the power to make any recommendations the see fit regarding health and safety to the employer.
  23. Who doesn’t have the right to refuse unsafe work
    • Police force·      
    • Fire fighters·      
    • Persons employed in operation of correctional institutions, a place of secure custody and temporary detention·      
    • Person employed in operation of hospital, sanatorium, long term health care, psychiatric institution, mental health centre and rehabilitation facility·      
    • Persons employed in a residential group home or other facility for persons with behavioural or emotional problems or a physical, developmental disability·      Ambulance service and first aid clinic·      
    • A laboratory operated by the crown
    • Laundry, food service, power plant or technical service or facility used in conjunction with an institution facility or service described in sub clause (i) to (iv)
    • (they do have the right not to use bad equipment as long as its not in a clinch situation)
  24. five different sections of the regulations:
    • GENERAL:
  25. how occupational health and safety laws are enforced
    • Health and safety laws are enforced by inspectorso   Inspectors are considered the “enforcement arm”·     
    •  They inspect workplaces·      
    • They issue orders where there is a violation of OHSA or regulations·      
    • Investigate accidents and work refusals·      Resolve disputes·      
    • Offer a recommendation of prosecution (against constructor, owner, architect, engineer, employer, worker)
  26. Powers of the inspectors:
    • Inspector may enter any workplace at any time without notice
    • Inspector may use any item (machine, device, chemical agent etc.) in the workplace
    • Inspector can require and examine any documents, specifications, licenses
    • Inspector can copy all documents and or extract any information from them
    • Inspector can test any item (equipment, device, chemical, etc) and take samples away
    • Inspector may require in writing authorization from employer to test any item at their own expense at any time
    • Inspector can take any person with special knowledge of any matter to take photographs
    • Can make inquiries to anyone in the workplace
    • Inspector can have a site shutdown due to a test, investigation, or examination
    • Inspector can require any machine or device to be tested on site
    • They can request in writing that a professional engineer has tested specific machine or device ensuring that it poses no danger to workerso   
    • If machine or device is pending authorization- inspector can require something in writing for this·      
    • Can require in writing that a professional engineer state load limits of a building and ensure that the building is capable of supporting/withstanding the loads being applied to it or likely to be applied. ·      
    • Can require in writing from the owner of the mine stating that the ground stability is safe for all workers
  27. Penalties for offenses under the Act:
    • Those who fail to comply with this act/regulations, an order/requirement of the director/inspector/minister may have to pay a maximum fine of $25,000 and/or  imprisonment up to 12 months
    • If convicted, a corporation can be fined up to $500,00.00 per offenceo  

    •  If an individual/corporation commits an offence under this act a director has the power to publicize the name of the individual(s) and the details of the offence so that the offence is known to the general public·     
    •  Any manager/supervisor/agent/representative/officer/director/supervisor of the accused will be held responsible for the act
  28. OHSA and other legislation
    • The Building Code Act
    • The Coroners Act
    • The Employment Standards Act
    • Fire Marshals Act
    • Health Protection and Promotion Act
    • The Labour Relations Act
    • Ministry of Labour Act
    • Provincial Offenses Act
    • Provincial Offenses Act
    • Transportation of Dangerous Goods
    • Work Compensation Act.
    • Highway Traffic Act
  29. The purpose/importance of an OHS policy and program:
    • Helps establish an effective H&S program
    • By stating principles and rules, an occupational health and safety policy guides actions-   
    • It reflects the special needs of a workplace meaning it should be specific to the workplace and regularly reviewed and updated in order to protect all employees within the workplace
    • It demonstrates a firm commitment of the company to health and safety – this dedication can be reinforced by the signature of a senior manager or president
  30. Content of an OHS policy and program:
    • Policy should state that the workplace has clear rules for healthy and safe work behaviour
    • Policy should address types of hazards that may be experienced in the workplace
    • Policy should discuss active and ongoing participation of all employees in helping to maintain a safe workplace
    • The responsibilities are clearly defined for all employees
    • These responsibilities for carrying out the policy objectives are clearly communicated and understood within the workplace
    • Policy should state what type of training program that will be provided by the employer to ensure that employees can meet their responsibilitieso  
    • The accountability of all levels of management is established for carrying out health and safety responsibilities
    • The intention to treat basic health and safety legislation as a minimum standard rather than a maximum – always go above and beyond
    • Policy statements need to be amended in order to keep pace with changes in the workplace
  31. What does WHMIS stand for
    • W – Workplace
    • H – Hazardous
    • M – Materials
    • I – Information
    • S - Systems
  32. Purpose of WHMIS
    • ◦To provide information on hazardous material used in the workplace
    • ◦To facilitate the process of hazard identification in the workplace
    • ◦To ensure consistency of hazard information in all Canadian workplaces
  33. WHMIS 3 basic elements
    • ◦Labels: on hazardous materials and their containers to the dangers of the product and basic safety precautions
    • ◦MSDS: technical bulletins that provide detailed hazard and all precautionary information on the product
    • ◦Worker education: programs that provide instruction on hazards and training in work procedures
  34. Supplier label 7 elements
    • –Hazard symbol
    • –Precautionary measures
    • –Reference to MSDS
    • –Supplier identifier
    • –First-aid measures
    • –Risk phrases
    • –Product identifier
  35. Workplace label 3 elements
    • –Product Identifier
    • –Precautionary measures
    • –Reference to MSDS
  36. MSDS 9 categories
    • –Hazardous ingredients
    • –Preparation information
    • –Product information
    • –Physical data
    • –Fire or explosion hazard
    • –Reactivity data
    • –Toxicological properties
    • –Preventative measures
    • –First aid measures
  37. Worker Education Program
    • ◦Must include instruction in:
    •       –Labels
    •       –MSDS–
    •       Hazard information
    •       –Procedures- use, handling, storage, disposal, presence of hazardous materials
    •       –Emergency procedures

    • ◦Must be:–
    •       Workplace specific–
    •       Performance based–
    •       Reviewed– At least annually or As changes occur
  38. How Hazardous Substances Affect the Body
    • ◦Latency issue
    • ◦Effects include acute, chronic, synergistic, local and systemic
  39. Entries to the body
    • –Inhalation
    • –Ingestion
    • –Absorption
  40. Exists of the body
    • –Liver
    • –Kidneys 
    • Bladder
  41. Disease Sites
    • Skin,
    • Eye
    • Ear
    • respiratory system
    • circulatory system
    • digestive system
    • liver
    • kidneys
    • nervous system
    • musculosketal system
    • reproductive system
  42. Principles of Control Hazards
    • –It must adequately control the hazard
    • –It must allow the worker to do their job without undue discomfort or distress
    • –It must protect every worker who might be exposed to the hazard
    • –It must not create a hazard in the surrounding community
  43. Places to control hazards
    • Control at the source
    •        Elimination or substitution
    •         Isolation
    • Control along the Path
    •        Ventilation
    •        Barriers
    •        Housekeeping
    • Control at the Worker
    •        PPE’s
    •         Administrative Controls
  44. Objectives of WHIMS
    • Reduce and prevent injuries and fatalities
    • Reduce damage to buildings, stock and equipment
    • Rapidly restore normal operations
  45. Emergency Plan (7 elements)
    • –Hazard Evaluation
    • –Emergency Response Plan
    • –Training
    • –Evacuation Plan
    • –Notification of Authority
    • –Supplies
    • - Drills
  46. Emergency Management
    • ◦Emergency Plan
    • *◦Emergency Manager
    • ◦Fire Plan
    • ◦Evacuation Requirements
    • ◦First Aid and Medical Attention
Card Set:
Health and Safety
2014-02-18 16:41:03


For midterm
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