Chapter 8

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Chapter 8
2014-02-18 13:25:01

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  1. Aerobic Metabolism
    The breakdown of molecules such as glucose through a series of reactions that produce energy within the cells in the presence of oxygen
  2. Glycolysis
    When glucose crosses the cell membrane, it is broken down into pyruvic acid molecules
  3. Anaerobic Metabolism
    The breakdown of molecules in the cells without the presence of molecules
  4. Laryngeal Spasm
    The larynx can be obstructed by laryngospasms where the vocal cords spasm and close together
  5. Boyle's Law
    • An increase in pressure (more positive) will decrease the volume of gas
    • A decrease in pressure (more negative) will increase the volume of gas
  6. Compliance
    A measure of the ability of the chest wall and lungs to stretch, distend, and expand
  7. Airway Resistance
    Related to the ease of airflow down the conduit of airway structures leading to the alveoli
  8. Minute Ventilation
    The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one minute

    Tidal volume x frequency of ventilation
  9. Tidal Volume
    The volume of air breathed in with each individual breath
  10. Alveolar Ventilation
    The amount of air moved in and out of the alveoli in one minute

    (Tidal volume - dead air space) x frequency of ventilation/frequency of ventilation
  11. Dead Air Space
    Consists of anatomical areas in the respiratory tract where air collects during inhalation--areas where however no gas exchange occurs
  12. Chemoreceptors
    Specialized receptors that monitor the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen levels in arterial blood
  13. Central Chemoreceptors
    These receptors are most sensitive to carbon dioxide and changes in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid
  14. Peripheral Chemoreceptors
    Most sensitive to the level of oxygen in the arterial blood
  15. Hypoxic Drive
    Hypoxia becomes the stimulus for ventilation in place of hypercarbia
  16. Irritant Receptors
    Found in the airways and are sensitive to irritating gases, aerosols, and particles
  17. Stretch Receptors
    Found in the smooth muscle of the airways and measure the size and volume of the lungs
  18. J-Receptors
    Found in capillaries surrounding the alveoli and are sensitive to increases in pressure in the capillary
  19. Respiratory Control Centers
    The dorsal respiratory group, the ventral respiratory group, and the pontine respiratory center
  20. Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG)
    Contains both inspiratory and expiratory neurons that are responsible for initiating neural impulses that stimulate the external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm, causing them to contract, which results in inhalation
  21. Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG)
    Responsible for initiating the basic rhythm of respiration
  22. Pontine Respiratory Center
    Sends inhibitory impulses from the VRG1 to turn of the inhalation
  23. Ventilation/Perfusion Ratio
    Describes the dynamic relationship between the amount of ventilation the alveoli receive and the amount of perfusion through the capillaries surrounding the alveoli
  24. Oxyhemoglobin
    Oxygen molecules binds with hemoglobin
  25. Deoxyhemoglobin
    Hemoglobin with no oxygen attached
  26. Hydrostatic Pressure
    The force inside the vessel or capillary bed generated by the contraction of the heart and the blood pressure
  27. Plasma Oncotic Pressure
    Responsible for keeping fluids inside the vessels
  28. Cardiac Output
    The amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle in 1 minute

    Heart rate x stroke volume
  29. Stroke Volume
    The volume of blood ejected by the left ventricle with each contraction
  30. Preload
    The pressure generated in the left ventricle at the end of diastole
  31. Frank-Starling Law of the Heart
    The stretch of the muscle fibers at the end of diastole determines the force available to eject the blood from the ventricle
  32. Afterload
    The resistance in the aorta that must be overcome by contraction of the left ventricle to eject the blood
  33. Systemic Vascular Resistance
    The resistance that is offered to blood flow through a vessel
  34. Vasoconstriction
    Decrease in vessel diameter
  35. Vasodilation
    Increase in vessel diameter
  36. Microcirculation
    The flow of blood through the smallest blood vessels--the arterioles, capillaries, and venules
  37. Blood Pressure
    Cardiac output x systemic vascular resistance
  38. Baroreceptors
    Stretch-sensitive receptors that detect changed in blood pressure