ANE 10W: Terms

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  1. Hezekiah
    • -king of Judah during Sennacherib's campaign,
    • -built fortifications in the city,
    • -reign was between c. 715 and 686 BC.
    • -First temple period.
  2. Josiah
    • -King of Judah,
    • -found the Book of Deuteronomy (book of laws) in temple,
    • -instituted reforms (2 Kings 21-23)
  3. Nebuchadnezzar
    • -Babylonian king,
    • -destroyed first temple,
    • -exiled people to Babylon
  4. Cyrus
    • -Persian king,
    • -issued decree of Cyrus to set jews free
  5. Jehoiachin
    • -King of Judah,
    • -one of the last, deposed by Babylonian king and exiled to Babylon when royal family is exiled
  6. Decree of Cyrus
    statement that allowed exiled Jews to return to their homes and to rebuild their Temple
  7. Ark of the Covenant
    -houses the presence of God, in the tabernacle, established by David, was mobile then Solomon placed it in the Holy of Holies
  8. David
    • -King that united the northern and southern
    • tribes,
    • -given instructions for the construction of a temple for God,
    • -God promises dynasty
  9. Solomon
    -son of David who builds the first temple
  10. Sennacherib
    Assyrian King who attempted to conquer Jerusalem (southern kingdom) but failed
  11. Samaria
    old capital of the Northern Kingdom
  12. Judas Maccabee
    • -Jewish priest who led revolt against Seleucidian empire,
    • -helped with the re-dedication of the temple
    • Takes over after his father's (Mattathias) death. Defeats Seleucids and instills "Hasmonean" control over Jerusalem. Purifies the temple.
  13. Divided Monarchy
    northern and southern kingdom divided, Jereboam in the north, Rehoboam in the south (judah)
  14. City of David
    south of the temple mount where David's palace resides
  15. Holy of Holies
    -section of temple in the far back where tabernacle and ark of the covenant resided, only priests allowed, Pompey violates this
  16. Mount Moriah
    • in Genesis 22, where Abraham takes Isaac to be sacrificed, appearance of the angel of the Lord, in 2 Samuel 7
    • location of threshing floor of Araunah, location of Solomon's temple,
    • future location of Jerusalem
  17. Hellenism
    spread of Greek culture during Hellenistic Period
  18. Bronze Sea
    symbolic of creation, "Yam", Babylonians took it
  19. Pompey
    Roman who conquered Jerusalem, entered Holy of Holies
  20. Antiochus IV
    • -last Seleucid ruler of Jerusalem, desecrated
    • temple- sacrificed pig on altar, enforced Hellenism on Jews causing
    • Maccabean revolt
    • -pagan altar in temple
    • -Surname: "the visible god"
  21. Diaspora
    exile and dispersion of Jews from Judah and Roman Judea. Destruction of 1st temple by babylone
  22. Hasmonean Dynasty
    brief period of Jewish independence, forced Judaism on places outside of Israel
  23. Persian Period
    539-332 BCE, started by Cyrus, good period for Jerusalem because they returned and rebuilt the temple
  24. Babylonian Exile
    exile of Jews to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar
  25. Alexander the Great
    started Hellenistic period by conquering and ending the Persian empire
  26. Broad Wall
    • ancient defensive wall in the old city of jerusalem
    • -hezekiah
  27. Zion Theology
    Affirms Davidic covenant and affirms sacredness of Jerusalem.
  28. Cognitive Dissonance
    discomfort experienced when holding two or more conflicting cognition
  29. Robinson's Arch
    arch that stood at southwest corner of temple mount. built by herod the great
  30. Ptolemy
    • controlled city of Jerusalem
    • -successor of alexander
  31. Hellenism
    political uncertainty in jerusalem. adoption of greek culture
  32. Ezekiel
    prophet with vision of rebuilt temple and waters flowing, invented idea of mobile God who was with exiled people in Babylon
  33. Herod the Great
    expanded and renovated the temple mount
  34. Ezra
    prophet who coordinates Israelites return to Jerusalem
  35. Torah
    • first 5 books of the bible: Genesis (Book of
    • Beginnings), Exodus (leaving Egypt), Leviticus (laws and cleanliness),
    • Numbers (wandering through the desert), Deuteronomy (Book of Laws)
  36. Kidron Valley
    to the east of Jerusalem, has Gihon Spring
  37. Hinnom Valley
    where child sacrifice and idol worship was, to the south of Jerusalem
  38. Western Hill
    Mount Zion, where David's tomb is
  39. Assyrian Empire
    destroyed Northern Kingdom, conquered by Babylonians
  40. Jebus
    1st name for the city known as Jerusalem prior to David taking over the location
  41. Judah
    the name given to the southern kingdom during the Divided Monarchy
  42. Tiglath-pileser III
    Assyrian King who conquered Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon; who introduced advanced civil, military and political systems
  43. Major Highways
  44. Execration texts
    • -sacred egyptian texts with names of amorite kings and their cites in hieratic on clay figurines.
    • -Middle Bronze Age. Egyptian voodoo dolls broken to symbolize destruction of a nation. First mention of Jerusalem in external sources
  45. Seriation
    the arrangement of a collection of artifacts into a chronological sequence.
  46. Law of superposition
    rock layers are deposited sequentially, with the oldest on the bottom and the youngest on the top.
  47. Amarna letters
    -Letters to Egyptian government written on clay ablets
  48. Milo
    • -massive retaining wall in area G
    • -"filling in"
    • -foundation
  49. Amorites
    • -canaanite
    • -west semites
  50. Lachish
    • -2nd most important city of Judah¬†
    • -falls to both sennacherib and nebuchadnezzar
  51. Abr Nahara
    -over the river
  52. Ketef Hinnom
    • "Shoulder of Hinnom"
    • -conisted of several tombs curved from natural caves
  53. John Hyrcanus
    • -Hasmonean ruler
    • -136 - 104 Bc
    • -built monument of Hyrancus and Hasmonean palace in Jerusalem
  54. Burnt House
    house near temple burned during first revolt; priests and their families lived there; Destroyed in 70 CE when the second temple was destroyed by the Romans
  55. Antonia fortress
    military barracks built by Herod the Great in Jerusalem on the site of the earlier Hasmonian stronghold. It was later destroyed by Titus' army during the Siege of Jerusalem (AD 70); Built in honor of Mark Anthony; Some believe it to be the place of trial of Jesus by Pontius Pilate
  56. Citadel of David
    fortress in the middle that protected the city.
  57. Tomb of Jesus
  58. Mount of Olives
    The name of the hillside where Jesus and his apostles went to after they celebrated their last Passover meal together, where the Garden of Gethsemane is located
  59. Nehemiah
    -rebuilt the city walls of Jerusalem in the Persian period
  60. Robinson's Arch
    arch that stood at southwest corner of temple mount. built by herod the great
  61. Order of events
    • 1. Middle Bronze Age
    • -1859 BCE: Execration texts
    • 2. Late Bronze Age
    • -1350 BCE: Armana letters
    • 3. Iron Age
    • -1000 BCE: United Kingdom, King David
    • 4. Divided Kingdom
    • -Judah--south--jerusalem
    • -israel---north---samaria
    • 5. Assyrians
    • 6. Babylonians
    • 7. Persian
    • 8. Hellenistic
    • 9. Hasmonean¬†
    • 10. Roman/Heroden
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ANE 10W: Terms
2014-07-10 11:40:16

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