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Changes (good, bad, neutral) that occur in the organism throughout the lifespan
The definition of aging based on a person's years lived from birth
How old a person feels, usually younger than chronological
- The process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation, and security in order to enhance quality of life as people age.
- -Improving quality of life for people as they age.
- -Moving from passivity/decline to successful/positive/resilient aging
- 1. Physical and social environments are not static, but change over time
- 2. There is a simultaneous process of adaptation
- 1. Attempts to adapt to environmental conditions like new living arrangements when a spouse dies.
- 2. Tries to bring about needed changes in environment and others such as installing a ramp for easier access to their home.
- The demands that the social and physical environment (nursing home, society) make on the individual to adapt, respond or change.
- EX: Stairs in the home demand that the older person be able to walk up and down those stairs
- The individuals capabilities (physical, cognitive, emotional) to function in an environment.
- EX: The individual may be cognitively quite happy.
- In this example press outweighs the individual's competence (too high)
What percentage of the USA is 65+? What percent should it be by 2035?
Why is life expectancy increasing?
More people surviving infancy and childhood. Immunization and sanitation is better. Prevention efforts. Medical interventions later in life.
Compression of morbility
Experiencing a few years of major illness in very old age. This implies that premature death is minimized because disease and functional decline are compressed into a brief period of 3 to 5 years before death
How the body ages video
- Signs of aging
- skin:wringles, thins, this is the earliest sign of aging
- Hair: Thins, loose pigment
- Body Composition: Increase in fat, decrease in water and lean muscle
- Movement/strength: slow, lose
- Skeletal change: Bones thin
- Aging is not illness or disease
Biological aging, or genetically influenced declines that affect all members of our species and take place even in the context of overall good health
- Bodily deterioration/disablement that IS NOT inevitable or universal with age
- -Diseases: Diabetes can lead to loss of sight
- -Self induced stressors: smoking can lead to breathing problems
- -Environmental stressors: pollution/toxin exposure can lead to cancers
Short term, treatable conditions such as the flue or common cold
Long term conditions/disease such as arthritis, heart disease and diabetes
Chronic conditions numbers
- Greater concern and more common than in younger people
- 75+ year olds:
- 1/2 have some arthritis
- 1/2 have high blood pressure (hypertension)
- 1/3 have some type of heart/cardiovascular disease
ADLs (Activities of Daily Living)
- Getting out of bed
- Using the restroom
- Shower/bathe themselves
- Dress them self
- Basic/personal care
IADLs (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living)
- Grocery Shopping
- Managing money and paying bills
- Preparing Meals
- Doing housework
- Using telephone
- Making appointments
- More complex tasks that require more decision making
ADLs and IADLs
Areas to assess on how well/poorly the older person functions on a daily basis. This is how we make decisions on whether the person needs assistance or care.
Older adult's self-report of health
72% of adults 65+ rate their health as "good" or "excellent"
- Coping with disease and chronic illness
- Saves and extends lives
- On average use 5 meds, but still sometimes as much as 15
- Requires caution
- -drugs interaction with one another
- -Alcohol interactions
Three leading causes of death in people 65+
- Heart Disease (32%)
- Cancer (22%)
- Stroke (8%)
- -At rest (while sitting) healthy older adults and younger adults have similar cardiovascular functioning
- -Under exertion they use a less efficient cardiovascular method (decreased work capacity of the heart)
- -If functioning is not good=sign of cardiovascular disease
- Loss of elasticity in artery walls (cell change), stiffening or "hardening" of the artery tissue. The artery walls will start to loose their "spring" and can't help as well with blood flow
- *Imagine a rubber band that has gotten old and hardened.
- Accumulation of lipid/fatty deposits (plaques) on interior walls of arteries
- -Narrows the passageways
- -Linked with problems with cholesterol
- -High LDL, Low HDL
- - Prevents (hinders) efficient blood flow
What is a heart attack?
When blood flow to a heart muscle suddenly becomes blocked and the heart can't get oxygen, heart muscle dies leading to a myocardial infraction/heart attack
Gender differences in Cardiovascular disease
#1 cause of death in both men and women
Women tend to have CV disease at later age. In younger and middle adulthood men are more likely than women to have CV disease
This gap decreases with age, so in every old age, men and women are close to equal
Heart attack prevention
- Maintain health weight
- -reduce salt and saturated fat intake
- -increase potassium, magnesium, and calcium intake
- Exercise (even moderate exercise helps!)
- Don't smoke
- Avoid excessive alcohol
"Silent epidemic" because you don't know you have it until you break a bone. There aren't warning signs. Disease stage-dramatic loss of bone mass and severe bone degeneration (i.e., very low density, very porous, brittle bones)
Physical outcomes of osteoporosis
- Diminished height
- slumped/hunched posture
Osteoperosis risk factors
- Susceptibility for fracture (ex: hip) with falls
- Deficiencies in calcium
- deficiencies in vitamin d
- vitamin D is vital to the absorption of calcium
- Many older adults have low levels of vitamin D
Women's health initiative's findings on HRT or ERT (hormone/estrogen replacement therapy)
- CAN reduce risk of osteoperosis and fractures
- CAN relieve menopausal symptoms
- -hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal drynes
- But controversial due to
- Increased risk for heart attack, stroke, and blood clots
- But these results may be specific to timing, duration, age and the specific HRT combo in this study
Currently FEWER docs recommend HRT/ERT than 10-15 years ago
Why do older adults tend to have low levels of vitamin D?
- -Very low sunlight exposure
- -Lack of weight-bearing exercise
- -excessive caffeine, alcohol, and sodium
- certain meds for other chronic illnesses such as taking steroids
Changes in vision
- -declines in vision function in low light situations and in high levels of glare
- -have trouble discerning color tones especially in the blue, gree, and violet range
- -have trouble judging distances and depth
- -upward and downward vision decreases
- -peripheral vision becomes narrowed.
- -Diseases of the eye can occur such as glaucoma, catracts and macular degeneration
Changes in auditory functions
Starts earlier than visual problems and affects more people.