Biology Test 1 (chapters 1 3 24 4)

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gabby12142
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262618
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Biology Test 1 (chapters 1 3 24 4)
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2014-02-18 16:43:14
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Biology
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Biology
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bio test
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  1. What are the steps of the scientific method?
    1. Observe and Generalize

    2. Formulate a hypothesis 

    3.Make a testable prediction

    4. List materials and be specific

    5. Experiment or observe

    6. Analyze and record results

    7. Modify the hypothesis if necessary and repeat

    8.State your conclusion
  2. Levels of Biological Organization that human biology can be studies on
    1. Atom

    2. Cell

    3. Tissue

    4. organ

    5. Organ System

    6.Organism

    7.Population

    8. Community

    9. Ecosystem

    10. Biosphere
  3. How does scientific information in peer-reviewed journals differ from that in newspapers?
    Information is more technical; readers usually require a background in the field in order to understand the article
  4. When data are presented in a graph, independent variables such as time or age should be plotted on?
    The abscissa
  5. what is metabolism?
    The chemical and physical processes that are involved in energy and molecular transformations in living organisms
  6. what is homeostasis?
    maintaining an internal environment compatible with life
  7. What is Geothermal?
    a renewable energy source that taps into heat produced deep below ground
  8. What are the types of organisms in kingdoms?
    1. Protista: protozoa algae

    2. Plantae: plants

    3. Animalia: animals

    4. Fungi: fungi
  9. What is the control?
    tells you if the experiment worked
  10. What's Earths distribution of water?
    Fresh Water: <1%

    Salt Water: 97%

    Glaciers/Polar Ice Caps: 2%
  11. What are renewable resources?
    • Biomass fuels
    • Hydroelectric power
    • Wind farms
    • solar energy

    geothermal energy
  12. What is the greenhouse effect responsible for?
    Global warming
  13. What do Greenhouse gases do?
    They trap heat from escaping the atmosphere and cause the atmosphere to heat up. (ex.Water vapor, Carbon dioxide, Methane)
  14. What is the Greenhouse effect?
    It's when the gases let sunlight through, but trap heat from radiating outward into space
  15. Which 2 human activities increased the levels of Carbon Dioxide?
    1.Deforestation

    2.Burning of fossil fuels
  16. What is ozone?
    In two different atmospheric

    locationsProtective shield in the stratosphere, shields the Earth surface from UV ray lights
  17. What happened to the stratospheric ozone layer?
    Depleted by reaction with CFCs but it's job is to protect the Earth from UV rays.
  18. What is the troposphere?
    It is man made as a result of air pollution that us humans have caused.
  19. What is eutrophication?
    Rapid growth of plant life leading to a shallow body of water resulting from excessive organic or inorganic nutrients
  20. What are the 3 types of microscopes?
    1. Light microscope

    2. Transmission electron microscope

    3. Scanning electron microscope
  21. What is a light microscope?
    It magnifies up to 1000x
  22. What is a Transmission electron microscope?
    magnifies up to 100,000x
  23. What is a scanning electron microscope?
    magnifies up to 100,000x and provides a 3-D view of cell surface
  24. What is passive transport?
    a cell does not need to expand energy for this

    (diffusion and osmosis)
  25. What is active transport?
    Cell must expend energy
  26. what is bulk transport?
    Involves membranous vesicles to move larger substances

    (endocytosis and exocytosis)
  27. What is diffusion?
    Movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to low concentration 

    "down" the gradient
  28. What is osmosis?
    diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, moves from a low concentration to a higher concentration
  29. What is endocytosis?
    Brings substances into the cell.

    As substance enters, it is surrounded by a membrane forming a membrane-bound vesicle
  30. What is exocytosis?
    Expels substances from the cell, substances is contained within a membrane vescile which then fuses with the membrane, releasing the substance to the external environment
  31. What is isotonic?
    Extracellular and intracellular solute concentration equal

    Cells maintain a normal volume in isotonic extracellular fluids

    Regulatory mechanisms extracellular fluid that is isotonic with intracellular fluid
  32. What is hypertonic?
    extracellular solute concentration higher than intracellular solute concentration

    water will diffuse out of the cell

    cell may shrink and die
  33. What is hypotonic?
    Extracellular solute concentration lower than intracellular solute concentration

    water will diffuse into cell

    cell may swell and burst
  34. What are the two types of metabolic pathways?
    1. Anabolism

    2.Catabolism
  35. What is anabolism?
    Assembly of larger molecules from smaller ones

    requires energy (ATP input)
  36. What is catabolism?
    Larger molecules are broken down

    releases enegy (ATP output)
  37. What is cellular respiration?
    The breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen to yield ATP
  38. What are the four stages of cellular respiration?
    1. Glycolysis

    2.Preparatory step

    3. Citric acid cycle

    4. Electron transport system
  39. What is mitochondria?
    Provides energy and is known as the "power plant" of the cell

    The number of mitochondria within a cell will vary within the cells energy requirement

    surrounded by a double membrane

    inner membrane is highly folded

    site of cellular respiration

    generates ATP
  40. What is the golgi Apparatus?
    It refines, packages, and ships

    refines synthesized products

    packaging and shipping center

    products are packages into vesicles and shipped to other locations within the cell or to the cell membrane for export
  41. What are cell junctions?
    They hold adjacent cells together
  42. What are the three types of junctions?
    1. Tight junctions

    2. Adhesion junctions/spot desmosomes

    3. Gap junctions
  43. What are tight junctions?
    Seal plasma membranes tightly together

    digestive tract lining, bladder lining
  44. What are adhesion junctions/spot desmosomes?
    Permit some movement between cells

    allow tissues to stretch and bend

    skin
  45. What are gap junctions?
    Protein channels enable movement of materials between cells

    liver, heart
  46. What are skeletal muscles?
    moves body parts

    voluntary, multinucleated
  47. What are cardiac muscles?
    Functions in the heart

    involuntary, single nucleus
  48. What are smooth muscles?
    surrounds hollow structures

    involuntary, single nucleus
  49. What are glial cells?
    Surround and protect neurons

    provide nutrients to neurons
  50. What is the skin's (integumentary system) 6 functions?
    1.Protect from dehydration

    2. Protects from injury

    3. Serves as defense against microorganisms

    4. Regulate body temperature

    5. Makes Vitamin D

    6. Provides sensation
  51. where is Cartilage found?
    joints between bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes and the intervertebral discs.

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