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What are the steps of the scientific method?
1. Observe and Generalize
2. Formulate a hypothesis
3.Make a testable prediction
4. List materials and be specific
5. Experiment or observe
6. Analyze and record results
7. Modify the hypothesis if necessary and repeat
8.State your conclusion
Levels of Biological Organization that human biology can be studies on
5. Organ System
How does scientific information in peer-reviewed journals differ from that in newspapers?
Information is more technical; readers usually require a background in the field in order to understand the article
When data are presented in a graph, independent variables such as time or age should be plotted on?
what is metabolism?
The chemical and physical processes that are involved in energy and molecular transformations in living organisms
what is homeostasis?
maintaining an internal environment compatible with life
What is Geothermal?
a renewable energy source that taps into heat produced deep below ground
What are the types of organisms in kingdoms?
1. Protista: protozoa algae
2. Plantae: plants
3. Animalia: animals
4. Fungi: fungi
What is the control?
tells you if the experiment worked
What's Earths distribution of water?
Fresh Water: <1%
Salt Water: 97%
Glaciers/Polar Ice Caps: 2%
What are renewable resources?
- Biomass fuels
- Hydroelectric power
- Wind farms
- solar energy
What is the greenhouse effect responsible for?
What do Greenhouse gases do?
They trap heat from escaping the atmosphere and cause the atmosphere to heat up. (ex.Water vapor, Carbon dioxide, Methane)
What is the Greenhouse effect?
It's when the gases let sunlight through, but trap heat from radiating outward into space
Which 2 human activities increased the levels of Carbon Dioxide?
2.Burning of fossil fuels
What is ozone?
In two different atmospheric
locationsProtective shield in the stratosphere, shields the Earth surface from UV ray lights
What happened to the stratospheric ozone layer?
Depleted by reaction with CFCs but it's job is to protect the Earth from UV rays.
What is the troposphere?
It is man made as a result of air pollution that us humans have caused.
What is eutrophication?
Rapid growth of plant life leading to a shallow body of water resulting from excessive organic or inorganic nutrients
What are the 3 types of microscopes?
1. Light microscope
2. Transmission electron microscope
3. Scanning electron microscope
What is a light microscope?
It magnifies up to 1000x
What is a Transmission electron microscope?
magnifies up to 100,000x
What is a scanning electron microscope?
magnifies up to 100,000x and provides a 3-D view of cell surface
What is passive transport?
a cell does not need to expand energy for this
(diffusion and osmosis)
What is active transport?
Cell must expend energy
what is bulk transport?
Involves membranous vesicles to move larger substances
(endocytosis and exocytosis)
What is diffusion?
Movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to low concentration
"down" the gradient
What is osmosis?
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, moves from a low concentration to a higher concentration
What is endocytosis?
Brings substances into the cell.
As substance enters, it is surrounded by a membrane forming a membrane-bound vesicle
What is exocytosis?
Expels substances from the cell, substances is contained within a membrane vescile which then fuses with the membrane, releasing the substance to the external environment
What is isotonic?
Extracellular and intracellular solute concentration equal
Cells maintain a normal volume in isotonic extracellular fluids
Regulatory mechanisms extracellular fluid that is isotonic with intracellular fluid
What is hypertonic?
extracellular solute concentration higher than intracellular solute concentration
water will diffuse out of the cell
cell may shrink and die
What is hypotonic?
Extracellular solute concentration lower than intracellular solute concentration
water will diffuse into cell
cell may swell and burst
What are the two types of metabolic pathways?
What is anabolism?
Assembly of larger molecules from smaller ones
requires energy (ATP input)
What is catabolism?
Larger molecules are broken down
releases enegy (ATP output)
What is cellular respiration?
The breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen to yield ATP
What are the four stages of cellular respiration?
3. Citric acid cycle
4. Electron transport system
What is mitochondria?
Provides energy and is known as the "power plant" of the cell
The number of mitochondria within a cell will vary within the cells energy requirement
surrounded by a double membrane
inner membrane is highly folded
site of cellular respiration
What is the golgi Apparatus?
It refines, packages, and ships
refines synthesized products
packaging and shipping center
products are packages into vesicles and shipped to other locations within the cell or to the cell membrane for export
What are cell junctions?
They hold adjacent cells together
What are the three types of junctions?
1. Tight junctions
2. Adhesion junctions/spot desmosomes
3. Gap junctions
What are tight junctions?
Seal plasma membranes tightly together
digestive tract lining, bladder lining
What are adhesion junctions/spot desmosomes?
Permit some movement between cells
allow tissues to stretch and bend
What are gap junctions?
Protein channels enable movement of materials between cells
What are skeletal muscles?
moves body parts
What are cardiac muscles?
Functions in the heart
involuntary, single nucleus
What are smooth muscles?
surrounds hollow structures
involuntary, single nucleus
What are glial cells?
Surround and protect neurons
provide nutrients to neurons
What is the skin's (integumentary system) 6 functions?
1.Protect from dehydration
2. Protects from injury
3. Serves as defense against microorganisms
4. Regulate body temperature
5. Makes Vitamin D
6. Provides sensation
where is Cartilage found?
joints between bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes and the intervertebral discs.