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rise of tide
vertical distance from the chart sounding datum to high tide
types of tide
- 1. semi diurnal
- 2. diurnal
- 3. mixed
- 4. spring
- 5. neap
- 6. solar
- 7. double low/high water
- 8. perigean tide
- 9. apogean tide
- 10 tropic tide
- 11. equatorial tide
state of earths atmosphere with respect to temperature, humidity cloudiness. etc.
characteristic of meteorological condition of a place.
- NE trade
- SE trade
- below high pressure belt blowing air westerly toward low pressure
strong wind at lat 40deg s to 50deg s
- tide with higher high lower low
- opposition or conjunction with earth
large difference in heights in high/low water heights
cold front overtakes warm front
cold air mass and warm air mass meet and no horizontal motion
maximum height reached by tide
periodic motion of water due to different attractive forces of celestial bodies
is the rise and fall of the water
periodic horizontal movement of the water
under water extension of iceberg
wind changing direction to left in north hemisphere and right in south hemisphere
occurs when moon is farthest from earth
occurs when moon is nearest from the earth
warm water current encounters cold air
boundary of 2 air masses
ocean waves produced by volcanic eruption or sea quake
time interval bet. passage of successive crests at a stationary point.
moon cross equator diurnal effect is minimum
moon is at maximum declination diurnal effect is maximum
buys ballot's law
- if an observer in the n hemisphere faces the surface wind, the center of low pressure is toward his right, somewhat behind him;
- and the center of high pressure is toward his left and somewhat in front of him
- if an observer in the s hemisphere faces the surface wind the center of low pressure is toward his left and somewhat behind him;
- and the center of high pressure is toward his right and somewhat in front of him.
- n hpc lpc
- s lpc hpc
blowing wind easterly toward the pole
causes iceberg in north hemisphere.
wind changing direction to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere
large ice consists of opening.
large ice detached from glacier
if your vessel is on storm track ahead of center.... to avoid the storm center in NORTHERN HEMISPHERE
bring the wind two pts. on the stbd. quarter, hold the course and make as much way as possible.
if your vessel is on storm track ahead of center.... to avoid the storm center in SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE
bring the wind two points on port qtr. hold course and make as much way as possible.
uneven surface of ice
narrow peninsula of ice
semi diurnal tide
- *small difference in heights in high/low water heights
- *2 high 2 low water each tidal day
- *atlantic and east coast in u.s. have this tide
1 high 1 low water each tidal day
mean low water
ave. height of all low water
mean high water
used in determining the heights of land features.
- *tide with lower high higher low.
- *sun and moon are in quadrature with the earth.
tide occure in the same time bec. of the sun.
direction toward which the current flows
speed of the current
no change of level of tide
minimum level to which the tide falls
- REDwarm air mass overtakes a retreating cold air mass.
- *falling of barometer pressure
- *high in humidity and temperature
- *150 mi. horizon slope
- cold air mass displaces warm air
- *falling of humidity and temperature
- *high in barometric pressure
is cloud whose base is low enough to restrict visibility.
high.. middle... low.. clouds height
- high- 20,000 ft
- middle- 6,500 - 20,000 ft.
- low- 6, 500
- low pressure calm
- *located between trades at 12deg N or S
- *often associated with heavy rain or thunder storm.
is a high pressure belt located at latitude 30deg-35deg N and S.
if your vessel is on right or dangerous semi circle... to avoid the storm center in NORTHERN HEMISPHERE
bring the wind on the stbd. bow hold course and make as much way as possible
if your vessel is on left or dangerous semi circle... to avoid the storm in SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE
bring the wind on the port bow, hold the course and make as much way as possible
if your vessel is on left or navigable semi circle... to avoid the storm center in NORTHERN HEMISPHERE
bring the wind on the stbd. quarter, hold the course and make as much way as possible.
if your vessel is on right or navigable semicircle... to avoid the storm center in SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE
bring the wind on the port quarter, hold the course and make as much way as possible.
34-40kts strong wind
horizontal distance between successive crest
vertical distance between trough and crest
movement of water toward the shore
movement of water away from shore
- commonly encountered at sea (sea fog)
- warm moist air passing a colder ocean surface.
forms over low-lying land on clear, calm nights.
difference in height between high and low tide
height of tide
vertical distance from tidal datum to level of water at anytime
tsunami or storm tide overflows the land
crack of ice which permit the passage of ship
dangerous semi circle
- north clockwise
south counter clockwise