meteorology

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Author:
victordathird
ID:
262626
Filename:
meteorology
Updated:
2014-02-20 12:02:16
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elementary meteorology
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  1. rise of tide
    vertical distance from the chart sounding datum to high tide
  2. types of tide
    • 1. semi diurnal
    • 2. diurnal
    • 3. mixed
    • 4. spring
    • 5. neap
    • 6. solar
    • 7. double low/high water
    • 8. perigean tide
    • 9. apogean tide
    • 10 tropic tide
    • 11. equatorial tide
  3. weather
    state of earths atmosphere with respect to temperature, humidity cloudiness. etc.
  4. climate
    characteristic of meteorological condition of a place.
  5. trade wind
    • NE trade
    • SE trade
    • below high pressure belt blowing air westerly toward low pressure
  6. roaring forties
    strong wind at lat 40deg s to 50deg s
  7. spring tide
    • tide with higher high lower low
    • opposition or conjunction with earth
  8. mixed tide
    large difference in heights in high/low water heights
  9. occluded front
    cold front overtakes warm front
  10. stationary front
    cold air mass and warm air mass meet and no horizontal motion
  11. high tide
    maximum height reached by tide
  12. tidal phenomenom
    periodic motion of water due to different attractive forces of celestial bodies
  13. tide
    is the rise and fall of the water
  14. tidal current
    periodic horizontal movement of the water
  15. rams
    under water extension of iceberg
  16. backing wind
    wind changing direction to left in north hemisphere and right in south hemisphere
  17. apogean tide
    occurs when moon is farthest from earth
  18. perigean tide
    occurs when moon is nearest from the earth
  19. frost smoke
    warm water current encounters cold air
  20. front
    boundary of 2 air masses
  21. tsunamis
    ocean waves produced by volcanic eruption or sea quake
  22. wave period
    time interval bet. passage of successive crests at a stationary point.
  23. equatorial tide
    moon cross equator diurnal effect is minimum
  24. tropic tide
    moon is at maximum declination diurnal effect is maximum
  25. buys ballot's law
    • if an observer in the n hemisphere faces the surface wind, the center of low pressure is toward his right, somewhat behind him;
    • and the center of high pressure is toward his left and somewhat in front of him
    • if an observer in the s hemisphere faces the surface wind the center of low pressure is toward his left and somewhat behind him;
    • and the center of high pressure is toward his right and somewhat in front of him.

    •                 hpc
    • n     hpc            lpc
    •                 lpc
    • ___________________
    •                 hpc
    • s     lpc             hpc
    •                 lpc
  26. prevailing westerlies
    blowing wind easterly toward the pole
  27. glacier
    causes iceberg in north hemisphere.
  28. veering wind
    wind changing direction to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere
  29. pack ice
    large ice consists of opening.
  30. iceberg
    large ice detached from glacier
  31. if your vessel is on storm track ahead of center.... to avoid the storm center in NORTHERN HEMISPHERE
    bring the wind two pts. on the stbd. quarter, hold the course and make as much way as possible.
  32. if your vessel is on storm track ahead of center.... to avoid the storm center in SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE
    bring the wind two points on port qtr. hold course and make as much way as possible.
  33. hummocked ice
    uneven surface of ice
  34. ice tounge
    narrow peninsula of ice
  35. semi diurnal tide
    • *small difference in heights in high/low water heights
    • *2 high 2 low water each tidal day
    • *atlantic and east coast in u.s. have this tide
  36. diurnal tide
    1 high 1 low water each tidal day
  37. mean low water
    ave. height of all low water
  38. mean high water
    used in determining the heights of land features.
  39. neap tides
    • *tide with lower high higher low.
    • *sun and moon are in quadrature with the earth.
  40. solar tide
    tide occure  in the same time bec. of the sun.
  41. set
    direction toward which the current flows
  42. drift
    speed of the current
  43. stand
    no change of level of tide
  44. low tide
    minimum level to which the tide falls
  45. warm front
    • RED
    • warm air mass overtakes a retreating cold air mass.
    • *falling of barometer pressure
    • *high in humidity and temperature
    • *150 mi. horizon slope
  46. cold front
    • cold air mass displaces warm air
    • *falling of humidity and temperature
    • *high in barometric pressure
  47. fog
    is cloud whose base is low enough to restrict visibility.
  48. high.. middle... low.. clouds height
    • high-      20,000 ft
    • middle-     6,500 - 20,000 ft.
    • low-          6, 500
  49. doldrums
    • low pressure calm
    • *located between trades at 12deg N or S
    • *often associated with heavy rain or thunder storm.
  50. horse latitude
    is a high pressure belt located at latitude 30deg-35deg N and S.
  51. if your vessel is on right or dangerous semi circle... to avoid the storm center in NORTHERN HEMISPHERE
    bring the wind on the stbd. bow hold course and make as much way as possible
  52. if your vessel is on left or dangerous semi circle... to avoid the storm in SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE
    bring the wind on the port bow, hold the course and make as much way as possible
  53. if your vessel is on left or navigable semi circle... to avoid the storm center in NORTHERN HEMISPHERE
    bring the wind on the stbd. quarter, hold the course and make as much way as possible.
  54. if your vessel is on right or navigable semicircle... to avoid the storm center in SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE
    bring the wind on the port quarter, hold the course and make as much way as possible.
  55. gale spd
    34-40kts strong wind
  56. wave length
    horizontal distance between successive crest
  57. wave height
    vertical distance between trough and crest
  58. flood
    movement of water toward the shore
  59. ebb
    movement of water away from shore
  60. advection fog
    • commonly encountered at sea (sea fog)
    • warm moist air passing a colder ocean surface.
  61. radiation fog
    forms over  low-lying land on clear, calm nights.
  62. range
    difference in height between high and low tide
  63. height of tide
    vertical distance from tidal datum to level of water at anytime
  64. epicenter
    wave originate
  65. tidal wave
    tsunami or storm tide overflows the land
  66. lead ice
    crack of ice which permit the passage of ship
  67. dangerous semi circle
    • north       clockwise
    • ________________

    south      counter clockwise

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