Chapter 2 The Female Reproductive System

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BenWood
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262644
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Chapter 2 The Female Reproductive System
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2014-02-20 20:43:19
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Human reproduction
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Chapters 2 The Female Reproduction System and the Ovary
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  1. Produces eggs, estrogen (follicle cells)  & progesterone (corpus luteum cells)
    Ovaries (Female Gonad)
  2. Transport oocyte / preembryo to uterus. Fertilization occurs in the upper 1/3rd of the oviduct
    Uterine tubes
  3. Site where embryo / fetus develops
    Uterus
  4. Neck of the uterus, opens into the vagina
    Cervix
  5. Passageway for menstrual flow; repository for sperm; birth canal.
    Vagina
  6. Erectile tissue of female
    Clitoris
  7. Skin folds that enclose the clitoris, vaginal and urethral openings.
    Labia
  8. Lined with cilia; transport egg/embryo to uterus; site of fertilization; site of capacitation
    Oviducts
  9. Produce eggs (oocytes) & steroid hormones (estrogens & progestins)
    Ovaries
  10. Transport oocyte/preembryo to uterus. 
    Uterine Tubes
  11. Fertilization occurs in _______________.
    The upper 1/3 of the oviduct
  12. Site where embryo/fetus develops
    Uterus
  13. Neck of the uterus, opens into the vagina.
    Cervix
  14. Passageway for menstrual flow; repository for sperm; birth canal.
    Vagina
  15. Small, finger like projections at the end of the fallopian tubes that help sweep the ovum into the fallopian tube
    Fimbriae
  16. The innermost layer of the uterus
    Endometrium
  17. The middle layer of the uterus
    Myometrium
  18. The outermost layer of the uterus
    Perimetrium
  19. Endometrium; site of implantation
    Uterus (womb)
  20. Opening to uterus
    Cervix
  21. Receives sperm; birth canal
    Vagina
  22. What is the pathway of sperm?
    Vagina --> Cervix --> Uterus --> Oviduct (ampullary-isthmic junction)
  23. The _________ is watery around time of ovulation.
    Cervical mucus
  24. Pockets that serve as temporary reservoirs for sperm
    Cervical crypts
  25. Sperm can live in the cervical crypts for __________.
    Up to 5 days
  26. Sperm reach the secondary oocyte in ________.
    30 minutes
  27. Capacitation before fertilization takes ___________.
    5-7 hours
  28. The 4 life stages of the ovary:
    • - Prenatal
    • - Postnatal or prepubertal
    • - Postpubertal
    • - Postmenopausal
  29. Egg production and steroid hormone production takes place in this life stage of the ovary.
    Postpubertal
  30. A _______ consists of an immature germ cell (oocyte) surrounded by 1 or more layers of non-germinating cells.
    Follicle
  31. In the prenatal stage, PGC's migrate to genital ridges in __________.
    Week 3
  32. In the prenatal stage, PGC's differentiate to form oogonia (diploid) in _______.
    Weeks 5-7
  33. In the prenatal stage, PGC's undergo ________ to make millions (6-7) of oogonia (diploid).
    Mitosis
  34. In the prenatal stage, oogonia (diploid) begin ________ forming primary oocytes (diploid) but stop/arrest in __________.
    Meiosis; Prophase I
  35. Prenatal (Before Birth) Stage Events:
    PGC --> Oogonium (Female diploid germ cell) [Mitosis] --> Primary Oocyte (arrests in Prophase I) [Meiosis]
  36. The millions (6-7) of primary oocytes arrest in Prophase I (Meiosis I) are held within a ______________.
    Primordial follicle
  37. Most follicles will undergo __________.
    Atresia (degeneration)
  38. Degeneration of the follicles is known as __________.
    Atresia
  39. Most of the primary oocytes arrested in Prophase I in primordial follicles will undergo __________.
    Atresia (degeneration)
  40. At birth, only __________ oocytes remain, and less than __________ remain at puberty.
    2 Million; 1/2 Million
  41. The state of the ovary from prenatal to prepuberty
  42. From prenatal to prepuberty, the primary oocytes remain ____________.
    Arrested in Prophase I
  43. The prenatal to prepuberty ovary
  44. In prepuberty, primary oocytes (diploid) will remain ___________.
    Arrested in Prophase I
  45. As puberty approaches, __________, __________, and some __________ will be developing.
    Primary; Secondary; Tertiary
  46. Marked by single flat granulosa layer becoming thick and cube shaped cells.
    Primary follicle

  47. Marked by multiple layers of granulosa cells and formation of the Zona pellucida (glycoprotein layer) & follicle membrane appear.
    Secondary follicle



  48. The glycoprotein layer that encloses the primary oocyte in a secondary follicle.
    Zona pellucida
  49. The secondary follicle is marked by __________ and the ____________.
    Multiple layers of granulosa cells; Zona pellucida
  50. Primordial, primary & secondary follicles are all generally referred to as ____________.
    Preantral follicles
  51. __________ means before the antrum.
    Preantral
  52. __________, __________ & __________ are all generally referred to as preantral follicles.
    Primordial, primary & secondary follicles
  53. Tertiary & Graafian follicles are known as __________ because they have an __________.
    Antral follicles; antrum
  54. __________ & __________ are known as antral follicles because they have an antrum.
    Tertiary & Graafian follicles
  55. What is an antrum?
    A fluid filled cavity

  56. At this stage, the antrum (fluid filled cavity) appears, and Theca cells are seen on outer surface of follicle membrane.
    Tertiary Follicle (Antral follicle) ~ 300 days
  57. In the Antral follicle (Tertiary) the __________ appears, and ____________ are seen on outer surface of follicle membrane.
    Antrum; Theca Cells

  58. Prepubertal Ovary
  59. In this stage, a primary oocyte (diploid) is going to be activated every 28 days (cycle)
    Puberty Stage
  60. In the puberty stage, a primary oocyte (diploid) is going to be activated every __________.
    28 days (cycle)
  61. In the puberty stage, a primary oocyte (within a growing follicle) is going to be undergoing development into a completed __________ and grow into a mature follicle called a __________.
    Tertiary follicle (Antral stage); Graafian follicle
  62. A mature follicle is called a ___________.
    Graafian follicle
  63. In a Graafian follicle (mature follicle), the __________ is greatly enlarged; __________ & __________ appears.
    Antrum; cumulus oophorus & corona radiata

  64. __________ before ovulation the Tertiary follicle transforms into a mature follicle, or __________.
    36 hours; Graafian follicle
  65. The __________are what is ovulated on day 14 of the menstrual cycle.
    Graafian follicle + secondary oocyte arrested in Metaphase II

  66. Puberty to Menopause Ovary
  67. Progression from Primordial ---> Graafian ~ 9 Months
  68. In Puberty ---> Menopause, an __________ surge is going to occur, followed by _____ and _____ surges around __________ of the menstrual cycle.
    estrogen; LH and FSH; Day 12
  69. In the ____________ stage, an estrogen surge is going to occur, followed by LH and FSH surges around day 12 of the menstrual cycle.
    Puberty ---> Menopause
  70. The estrogen, LH and FSH surges around day 12 of the menstrual cycle trigger:
    • - One primary oocyte within a tertiary follicle is going to complete Meiosis I (36 hours before ovulation) 
    • - The oocyte will begin Meiosis II, thus becoming a secondary oocyte, but stop at Metaphase II. The follicle will become Graafian.
    • - Primary oocyte (diploid) will mature into a secondary oocyte & 1st polar body.
  71. __________ is what will be ovulated on day 14 of the menstrual cycle.
    Secondary oocyte arrested in Metaphase II in the mature Graafian follicle
  72. A secondary oocyte arrested in Metaphase II in the mature Graafian follicle is what will be ovulated on ___________.
    Day 14 of the menstrual cycle
  73. The follicle will rupture out of the ovary and be drawn into the waiting _____________.
    Fimbriae (cilia lined) of the uterine tube (oviduct/Fallopian tube)
  74. Where the follicle ruptured out of the ovary, that space in the ovary is going to ___________.
    Bleed and then clot
  75. Lipids will accumulate and it will form the __________.
    Corpus luteum or yellow body

  76. Granulosa & Theca cells of the ruptured follicle are transformed into __________.
    Luteal cells (will produce progesterone & estrogen)
  77. Progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum will ________________.
    Maintain and grow the endometrial lining of the uterus
  78. If fertilization does NOT occur:
    • - The secondary oocyte + follicle will degenerate + be reabsorbed by uterine tube.
    • - The Corpus luteum will degrade into the Corpus albicans (white body) and shrivel up and form a scar on the ovary.
  79. If fertilization DOES occur:
    The sperm that has undergone capacitation will penetrate the female gamete in the upper 1/3 of the uterine tube

  80. Sperm penetration will trigger:
    - The secondary oocyte to complete Meiosis II, thus forming the ovum and 2nd polar body

    (Secondary oocyte ---> ovum & 2nd polar body)
  81. Will trigger the secondary oocyte to complete Meiosis II, thus forming the ovum and forming 2nd polar body:
    Sperm penetration
  82. The __________ is formed when pronucli of male and pronucli of the female fuse together.
    Zygote
  83. Once the zygote is implanted into the endometrium of the uterus:
    The zygote will secrete the hormone hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)
  84. Once the zygote is implanted into the __________ of the uterus, the zygote will secrete __________.
    Endometrium;hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)
  85. __________ will keep the __________ hormonally active (estrogen & progesterone) and the __________ will remain in place to support the embryo with its hormones for ~ 3 months as the __________ forms.
    hCG; Corpus luteum; placenta
  86. Oogenesis
  87. In this phase the uterus is prepared for implantation of a fertilized egg
    Luteal Phase (period of corpus luteum activity)

    Note: This coordinates with the secretory phase of the uterus. The endometrium is built up to be thick and spongy, and is maintained awaiting implantation. When this does not happen the breakdown begins.
  88. The __________ cells secrete progesterone and estrogen
    Lutein
  89. __________ is required to maintain pregnancy & inhibits the release of _____ and _____.
    Progesterone; FSH; LH
  90. If fertilization and implantation OCCURS, the __________ is retained.
    Corpus Luteum
  91. If implantation DOES NOT occur, the __________ degenerates. And, __________ and __________ levels drop.
    Corpus Luteum; progesterone and estrogen
  92. Use the diagram of the female anatomy below.  This part of the female anatomy contains cilia that will assist the sperm in reaching the egg and is where sperm capacitation and fertilization also occur.   

    Structure 4
  93. Use the diagram of the female anatomy below.  Secondary follicles can be found here.

    Structure A
  94. Implantation of the embryo occurs

    A) vagina
    B) cervix
    C) ovary
    D) fimbriae and uterine tube (oviduct)
    E) uterus
    E) uterus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. Use the diagram of the female anatomy below.  Where is the endometrium located? 

    Part C
  96. Which follicle will contain a 10 oocyte arrested in Prophase I?


    A) Primordial,Primary, and Secondary
    B) Choices A and B
    C) Tertiary
    D) Choices B and C
    E) Graafian
    B) Choices A and B
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. Use the diagram of the female anatomy below.  What structure will secrete progesterone?

    Part D
  98. Which follicle type is antral?

    A) Primordial
    B) Tertiary
    C) Primary
    D) Choices A, B and C
    E) Secondary
    B) Tertiary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  99. When does the zona pellucida first form?

    A) Secondary
    B) Primary
    C) Graafian
    D) Primordial
    E) Tertiary
    A) Secondary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. Which of the following are haploid (n)?

    A) Both A and B
    B) 20 oocyte arrested in Metaphase II
    C) ovum
    D) 10 oocyte arrested in Prophase I
    E) oogonia
    F) Both C and D
    F) Both C and D
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. What type of follicle?



    A) Tertiary
    B) Primordial
    C) Primary
    D) Secondary
    E) Graafian
    D) Secondary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. What is the signal for the secondary oocyte to complete meiosis II?

    A) ovulation
    B) hormone secretions from the corpus luteum
    C) sexual intercourse
    D) sperm penetration of the gamete
    E) implantation into the endometrium
    D) sperm penetration of the gamete
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. What type of oocyte is contained in the follicle depicted in this picture?

    1° oocyte  arrested in Prophase I
  104. What is the name of the structure numbered 3 in this diagram?  

    Antrum
  105. What happens if fertilization does not occur?

    A) corpus luteum degrades into the corpus albicans or white body
    B) the uterine tube reabsorbs the
    female gamete
    C) the female gamete comes out in the menstrual cycle
    D) a cyst forms and fills with lipids
    E) meiosis II completes and a second polar body is formed
    F) Choices A and B
    G) Choices A and C
    H) Choices A and D
    I) Choices B and E
    F) Choices A and B
  106. In the female reproductive system, a mature follicle or Graafian follicle contains

    A) A primary (1º) oocyte arrested in Metaphase I of meiosis
    B) A secondary (2ᵒ) oocyte arrested in Metaphase I of meiosis with 1 polar body
    C) A secondary (2ᵒ) oocyte arrested in Prophase I of meiosis
    D) A primary (1º) oocyte arrested in Prophase I of meiosis
    B) A secondary (2ᵒ) oocyte arrested in Metaphase I of meiosis with 1 polar body
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  107. A zygote is formed when the

    A) The zona pellucida is penetrated by the sperm
    B) Female and male pronucli fuse
    C) Preembryo embeds in the endometrium
    D) Mucus plug that covers the opening of the cervix becomes watery
    E) Acrosomal reaction occurs
    B) Female and male pronucli fuse
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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