Chemistry vocab 1-3.txt

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Chemistry vocab 1-3.txt
2014-02-18 17:44:15

Chemistry Vocab
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  1. Science
    knowledge about nature and our physical world and theories to explain knowledge
  2. Technology
    the application of knowledge for practical purposes
  3. Alchemy
    a mixture of chemistry and magic that came about in Europe during the Middle Ages (c.e. 500-1500)
  4. Natural philosophy
    philosophical speculation about nature
  5. Green chemistry
    use materials and processes that are intended to prevent or reduce pollution at its source
  6. Sustainable chemistry
    designed to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations.
  7. Hypothesis
    educated guesses
  8. Scientific laws
    large amount of scientific data
  9. Theory
    best current explanation for a phenomenon
  10. Variable
    something that can change over the course of an experiment
  11. Risk- benefit analysis
    estimation of a desirability quotient
  12. Applied research
    work oriented toward the solution of a particular problem in an industry or the environment
  13. Basic research
    the search for knowledge for its own sake
  14. Chemistry
    study of matter and the changes it undergoes
  15. Matter
    stuff that makes up all material things
  16. Physical property
    can be observed or measured without generating new types of matter
  17. Chemical property
    how a substance reacts with other types of matter
  18. Solid
    maintains shape and volume
  19. Liquid
    occupies definite volume but shape changes to object
  20. Gas
    maintains neither shape nor volume
  21. Substance
    having definite or fixed composition that does not vary from one sample to another
  22. Chemical symbol
    made up of one or two letters derived from the name of the element
  23. Atom
    smallest characteristic part of an element
  24. Molecule
    group of atoms bound together as a unit
  25. SI units
    a modernized version of the metric system established in France in 1791
  26. Kilogram
    2.2 pounds
  27. Meter
    a unit about 10% longer than 1 yard
  28. Liter
    1 cubic decimeter or 100 cubic centimeters
  29. Energy
    required to make something happen that would not happen by itself
  30. Heat
    energy on the move- from warmer to cooler
  31. Temperature
    measure of how hot or cold an object is
  32. Kelvin and Celsius
    SI base unit. Laboratory work use.
  33. Joule and Calorie
    SI derived unit of energy. More familiar unit.
  34. Kilocalorie
    calorie used for expressing the energy content of foods
  35. Law of conservation of mass
    matter is neither created not destroyed during a chemical change
  36. Law of multiple proportions
    stated that elements might combine in more than one set of proportions
  37. Atomic mass units
    referred to as units. Relative atomic masses.
  38. Periodic table
    63 elements in order of increasing atomic mass
  39. Electrons
    negatively charged units
  40. Cathode rays
    the beam that leaves the cathode and travels to the anode
  41. X-ray
    image if bones
  42. Radioactivity
    spontaneous emission of radiation from certain unstable elements
  43. Alpha particle
    mass 4x that of a hydrogen atom and a charge 2x the magnitude of that of an electron
  44. Beta particle
    an electron but has more energy than in an atom
  45. Gamma rays
    not deflected by a magnetic field
  46. Proton
    a charge equal in magnitude to that of the electron and has nearly the same mass as a hydrogen atom. Positively charged.
  47. Neutron
    high mass of the helium nucleus. No charge
  48. Atomic number
    number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of any element
  49. Isotopes
    same number of protons but different number of neutrons
  50. Mass number/nucleon number
    number of nucleons
  51. Quantum
    tiny unit of energy. Depends on the frequency of the radiation
  52. Energy level
    specified energy value for an electron
  53. Ground state
    atoms with their electrons situated
  54. Excited state
    electron jumps from the lowest possible to the highest level
  55. Shells
    various energy levels
  56. Electron configuration
    arrangement of elements
  57. Orbitals
    various shaped volumes of space replace the planetary orbits
  58. Subshell
    orbitals in the same shell that have the same letter designation
  59. Group
    vertical column
  60. Period
    horizontal row
  61. Main group element
    In an A group
  62. Transition
    In a B group
  63. Valence electron
    electron in the outermost shell of an atom
  64. Alkali metals
    metals in group 1A
  65. Alkaline earth metals
    Group 2A
  66. Halogens
    Group 7A
  67. Noble gases
    lack of chemical reactivity
  68. Metal
    characteristic luster and is a good conductor of heat and electricity
  69. Nonmetal
    lacks metallic properties