Pharmacology - Antiepileptics 1
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Which anti-epileptic drug is effective against Complex seizures but is the most effective against Partial complex seizures, has fewer adverse effect s than Valproate, is a Highly effective TCA analog with a shape similar to phenytoin, inhibits Na channels on excitatory neurons in the CNS, has an active metabolite, induces the CYP system (leading to its own metabolism), can (rarely) cause aplastic anemia due to its epoxide metabolite, causes nausea and visual disturbances and exacerbates absence seizures?
Which Antiepileptic is a metabolite of carbamazepine, blocks Na channels in excitatory neurons in the CNS, is slightly less potent and efficacious than carbamazepine but lacks the toxicity profile of carbemazapine due to lack of a toxic metabolite, alters Na conductance and reduces frequency of repetitive firing and has the adverse effects of inducing the CYP system (less so than with Carbemazapime) and Hyponatremia?
Which Antiepileptic is still used for infantile seizures (drug of choice), is efficacious in partial, generalized tonic/clonic and febrile seizures, interacts with voltage gated Na channels, has one of the safest profiles, has high sedative effects, acts by opening GABA gated Cl- Channels and has the adverse effects of sedation, cognitive impairment, induction of liver enzymes and exacerbation of absence and liver enzymes?
Which Antiepileptic produces phenobarbital and phenylethylmalonamide (PEMA) as metabolites, is effective for Partial and generalized tonic/clonic seizures, Na channel blocker of excitatory neurons, is absorbed completely, has low protein binding, needs to be started slowly to avoid sedation and GI problems, acts more like phenytoin than barbituates and causes sedation, cognitive impairment, GI problems, induction of liver enzymes and may worsen absence and atonic seizures?
Which Antiepileptic is a relatively toxic compound, blocks voltage gated Na channels, inhibits Succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase and GABA transaminase, elevates GABA levels at GABAnergic synapses, is as effective as carbamazepine in controlling generalized tonic/clonic seizures, is used for absence and myoclonic seizures, is broad spectrum, has many DDIs, induces CYP450 system and its own metabolism, is a teratogen that causes spina bifida, may increase potassium conductance and can cause N/V, abdominal pain, heartburn, tremor, hair loss, weight gain, idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and has interactions with other antiepileptics?
Which antiepileptic is the drug of choice for absence seizures, effecting T type Ca channels in the Thalymus, is commonly used in children, has high efficacy and safety, low protein binding and causes Gastric distress, including, pain, N/V, HA, Hiccups, Skin rashes and Lethargy?
Which antiepileptic is a benzodiazepine with a long DOA, high efficacy for absence seizures, can be used for myoclonic seizures in some cases, Increases the frequency of GABA-gated Cl- channel opening, has rapid tolerance development, is used for acute treatment of status epilepticus and causes sedation and ataxis?
Which antiepileptic is a benzodiazepines, is given IV, is the primary treatment for status epilepticus, causes muscle relaxation, is an allosteric GABA modulator, Potentiates GABA function and causes sedation, paradoxical hyperactivity in children and has rapid tolerance?
Lorazepam and Diazepam
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