Psychology quiz

Card Set Information

Psychology quiz
2014-02-18 18:59:02

Exam 1 child psych
Show Answers:

  1. Phenotype
    The observable characteristics of a person
  2. Assisted Reproductive Technology
    Techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive
  3. In Vitro Fertilization
    Fertilization that takes place outside the body, then is placed in womb
  4. Dizygotic Twins
    Twins who are formed when 2 separate oval are fertilized by 2 separate sperm
  5. Monozygotic Twins
    Originate from one zygote that splits apart early in development
  6. Scientific Method
    Way to answer questions using empirical research & data based conslusions
  7. What causes genetic disorder
    • Decreased sperm count
    • Drug abuse
    • Extra genetic material on 21st chromosome
  8. Cohort-sequential research
    A study of different aged groups, that follows them over the years

    Pros: allows to disentangle age and historical context.
  9. Cross-sectional research
    A research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but similar in other characteristics
  10. Longitudinal Research
    Same individuals are followed over time & their development is repeatedly assessed
  11. Ecological model
    Developmental study by URie Bronfennbrenner suggested 3 levels that affects a person

    • 1) Macro-system: cultural, political, social
    • 2) Exo-system: School/work place
    • 3) Micro-system: Immediate surroundings
  12. Polygenic
    Referring to a trait that is influenced by many genes
  13. Multifactorial
    Referring to a trait that is affected by many factors
  14. Epigenetic
    Referring to environmental factors that affect genes and genetic expression
  15. Two physical rules of growth and development
    • 1) Cephalo-caudal (head to toe)
    • 2) Proximal distal
  16. Stages of prenatal development
    • 1) Germinal Stage: placenta develops
    • 2) Embryonic Stage: neural tube develops
    • 3) Fetal stage
  17. High risk teratogens
    • -Taxoplasmosis
    • -CMV
    • -Quinine
    • -Accutane
    • -Ribavrin
  18. Guatemala Study
    1980 published in new England journal of medicine. Study of women with/without "midwife" support throughout pregnancy

    • 33 women were supported
    • 103 non supported

    • Supported women labor hours 8.7hrs
    • Non supported women labor hours 19.3hrs
  19. Episiotomy
    Cutting of the cervix
  20. Childbirth Approach
    By LeBoyer

    • Create a comfortable environment for baby to be born into that resembled womb.
    • -dimmer lights
    • -warm room
    • -water birth
    • -no fathers

    problem: babies got cold, and infection
  21. Humane Genome Project
    A international effort to map the complete human genetic code, completed in 2001
  22. Dominant recessive pattern
    interaction of a heterozygous pair of alleges in such a way that the phenotype reflects one allele
  23. x-linked
    gene carried on the x chromosome.

    If male inherits x linked recessive trait from mom, he shows that trait cz the Y from his father has no counteract gene.

    Females are more likely to be carriers of x linked traits but not show them
  24. Copy number variations
    Genes with various repeats or deletions of base pairs
  25. Heritability
    Statistic that indicates what percentage of the variation in a particular trait can be traced to genes
  26. Down syndrome
    condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of 46.

    1 extra chromosome on 21st sight (total of 3)

    • facial features
    • Heart abnormalities
    • Language difficulties
  27. Fragile x syndrome
    Genetic disorder in which part of the x chromosome seems to be attached to the rest of it by a very thin string of molecules
  28. Lamaze (person)
    He created breathing exercises for women in labor
  29. Epidural and problems with it
    Shot given between spinal cords, that numbs body waist down

    • Problems:
    • -can stop dilating progress
    • -back problems
    • -headaches
    • -infection @ injection sight
    • -may not work on both sides of lower body
    • -may start traveling waist up
  30. Bradley Method
    • Involves Labor exercises
    • -squats
    • -kegals: tightening of urinary muscles
  31. Ideal pregnancy weight to gain
    25-35 lbs
  32. Vernix
    Lubricant on newborn that helps it travel through birth canal
  33. Lanugo
    Hair that forms on baby to keep it warm
  34. Doula
    Midwife, but not professional or trained
  35. Stages of labor
    • 1) contractions
    • 2) parturition
    • 2) after-birth
  36. Stages of contractions
    • 1. Early: thinner effacement
    •            : Braxton hicks: contractions feel like
    •               labor
    • 2. Active labor: up and walking around
    • 3. Transition: resist urge to push until 10cm
    •                   : cervical plug: mucus bloody plug expels right before labor
  37. Involution
    Process of reduction of uterus to its normal size
  38. Apgar score
    • Checks if baby is breathing
    • 5-7mins of routinely checking score after birth

    • If score is less than 3, critical
    • If score is greather than 2, baby is good
  39. Birth anoxia/asphyxia
    10 mins of Apgar score being below 3, shows there is brain damage or brain isn't getting enough oxygen
  40. Recovery times
    • Vaginal birth-2 weeks
    • C-section- 6 weeks
  41. Most common chromosomal abnormality
    Down syndrom
  42. One factor that puts you @ risk, where you should get genetic counseling before having a baby
    -reproducing within same genetic stalk
  43. Pre natal test they insert a needle into your abdomen and abstract amniotic fluid
  44. Psychoanalytic theory
    Grand theory of human development that holds irrational, unconscious drives and motives often originating in childhood
  45. freuds theory
    multifaced theory that early childhood was crucial. Development in first 6 year as occurs in 3 stages (psychosexual)

    • -mouth (oral stage)- infancy
    • Anus (anal stage)- early childhood
    • Penis (phallic stage)- preschool
  46. Erickson Theory (psychosocial)
    Theorized 8 developmental stages each characterized by a particular challenge or developmental crisis.
  47. Cognitive Theory
    Grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. According to this, thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs and behaviors
  48. Behaviorism
    Grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. This theory aka "learning theory"
  49. Quantitative research
    Research that provides data that can be expressed with numbers such as ranks or scales

    Pros: can be translated across cultures
  50. Qualitative researach
    Considers qualities not quantities. Narrative accounts and individual variations are often stressed.
  51. Development theories
    Group of ideas, assumptions that interpret thousands of observations about human growth