Vascular Plants Study Guide

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llindse2
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Vascular Plants Study Guide
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2014-02-19 00:02:30
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Vascular Plants Study Guide
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Vascular Plants Study Guide
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  1. Land
    Plants – The green algal ancestors of land plants, what plant
    characteristics appeared in the green algae, and where they first appeared.
    Two characteristics linked to modern day land plants and ancestral land plants are carbohydrate storage chlorophyll.

    Green algae had chlorophyll A + B
  2. Life cycle of plants. Major obstacles to living on land
    • Diploid
    • Fertilization
    • Zygote
    • Embryo
    • Sporophyte
    • Sporangium
    • Sporocyte
    • Meiosis

    • Haploid
    • Spores
    • Gametophyte
    • Gametangium Archegonium (female) and Antheridium (male)
    • Sperm + Egg
  3. Major obstacles to living on land.
    • 1.Desiccation
    • Sporophyte /Gametophyte
    • Sperm
    • Spore

    2.Water Acquisition

    3.Internal Transport

    4. Gravity

    • 5.Transport
    • Sperm and Spore
  4. Geological
    Periods - When different groups of land plants were most abundant and diverse.
    • Bryophytes
    • Most Diverse in Carboniferous

    • First Vascular Plants
    • Devonian

    • Lycopodiophyta
    • Carboniferous

    • Pteridophyta
    • Carboniferous
  5. Bryophytes
    - Reproductive cycle of bryophytes
    • Diploid
    • Fertilization
    • Zygote
    • Embryo
    • Sporophyte
    • Sporangium (tip)
    • Sporocyte (operculum and peristone teeth)
    • Meiosis


    • Haploid
    • Spores
    • Gametophyte
    • Gametangium
    • Archegonium (female) and Antheridium (male)
    • Sperm + Egg
  6. Mosses and liverworts compared. How bryophytes address the obstacles to livingon land. Ecological importance of bryophytes.
  7. Structures of gametophyte and sporophyte.
    • Gametophyte
    • Either male or female depending on environment. Females only have sporophyte. Photosynthetic
    • Rhizoids for attachment but not absorption. no vascular tissue.
    • has "stem and leaves". Dominant plant

    • Sporophyte
    • Completely dependent on gametophyte
    • Produces spores and dies.
  8. Mosses and liverworts compared.
    • Hepatophyta came first.
    • Sporangium twist when they dry out and split open.
  9. How bryophytes address the obstacles to living
    on land.
    • 1. Desiccation
    • Gametophyte surive desiccation dormancy

    Spores - water proof cell wall (sporopallenin)

    • 2. Transportation
    • Spores - wind
  10. Ecological importance of bryophytes
    Can grow on rocks. Important in succession. Hold rain water and release chemicals which promote weathering and collect dust particles which create soil for other plants to grow.
  11. The first vascular plants - Structure and characteristics of the sporophyte.
    • Stem only
    • Dichotomous branching
    • Part of stem on or underground (rhizome)
    • Mycorrhizae to absorb water elements
    • Sporangia at end of branches
  12. Tissues of the sporophyte: their names, structures, and functions.
    Specialized tissue and stem; epidermins is the outermost cell layer which have a waterproof cuticle, openings called stoma which contain guard cells.

    • Vascular tissues: phloems: transport sugar
    • Xylem: water + minerals
    • Tracheids: have primary and secondary cell walls
    • ligin in 2dary cell walls stiff to avoid collapsing

    • Ground tissue
    • Storage and photosynthesis

    Sporophyte most dominant no fossil evidence due for gametophyte
  13. Solutions to the obstacles to living on land.
    • 1. Dessication
    • Sporophyte

    • 2. Water Acquisition
    • Rhizomes and mychorrizae

    • 3. Internal Transport
    • xylem and phloem

    • 4. Gravity
    • Tracheids
  14. Lycopodiophyta
    - Characteristics of homosporous and heterosporous life cycles
    • Homosporous
    • Spores all the same
    • Develop into a bisexual gametophyte that develops sperm and egg

    • Heterosporous
    • micro and megaspores

  15. The importance and potential benefits of heterospory.
    Less inbreeding, greater genetic diversity and this happens because unisexual gametophytes

    • Gametophytes can specialize
    • males- produce/transport sperm
    • females- support/protect young sporophyte
  16. Characteristics of the sporophytes of Lycopodium and Selaginella, emphasizing new innovations of Lycopodiophyta.
    True roots with root hairs

    Leaves have microphyll (little leaves)

    Strobilus (cone) cluster of sproangia which is partly attached to the leaf

    Sporophyll - a leaf with a sporangium attached

    Gametophte is small and simple and has no specialized tissue.
  17. Pteridophyta

    What “eusporangiate” and “leptosporangiate” mean
    • Eusporangiate:
    • parent cells are located at the surface of the tissue from which the sporangium is produced

    • Leptosporangiate:
    • Arise from a single superficial initial cell
  18. Which seedless plants are eusporangiate and which are leptosporangiate
    • Eusporangiate:
    • 1st vascular plants, lycopodiophta, horsetails, whisk ferns, eusporangiate ferns

    • Leptosporangiate:
    • Most ferns
  19. The evolutionary significance of the two kinds of plants.
    • Eusporangiate
    • Gametophytes are relatively large
    • Live multiple seasons
    • Produce multiple sporophytes

    • Leptosporangiate
    • Gametophytes are retalively small
    • Live one season
    • Produce on sporophyte
  20. Fern life cycle.
    • Most homosporous; some htersporous
    • Sperm swim through water
  21. Important features of ferns;gametophytes and sporophytes, origin of megaphylls.
    Orginated from epidermis of microphyll

    cluster of branches

    lateral outgrowths

    Sporangia entirely on leaf
  22. Evolutionary trends from bryophytes to leptosporangiate ferns.
    • 1. Gametophyte
    • Size
    • Large (Bryophyte)>Small (Eusporangiate) >Smaller (Leptosporangiate)

    • Longevity
    • Decreases

    • Complexity
    • Decreases

    • 2. Sporophyte
    • Size
    • Increases

    • Complexity
    • Increases

    • Dependence on gametophyte
    • Decreases

    • 3. Water Acquistion
    • Bryophytes (absorb rainwater)> Vascular plants (mycorrhizae)>Lycopodiophyta (roots)

    • 4.Leaves
    • Bryophtes ("leaves")>Lycopodia (microphyll) > megaphyll (ferns)
  23. Solutions of seedless plants to obstacles to land life: which plants solved them and how they they did so.
    • 1. Desiccataion
    • Gametophyte: Bryophytes

    Sporophyte: Lycopodia (epidermis and cuticle)

    Spores: Bryophytes (waterproof cell wall)

    • 2. Water Acquisition
    • Lycopodia (roots)

    • 3.Internal Transport
    • 1st vascular plants (xylem and phloem)

    • 4.Gravity
    • 1st vascular plants (tracheids)

    • 5. External transport
    • Spores Bryophytes (wind)

    .
  24. The five shortcomings of seedless plants.
    • 1. Sperm desiccation
    • 2. Sperm transport
    • 3. Gametophyte too small
    • 4. Light competition
    • 5. Space (disperal: sending spores out)

    • Process:
    • release spores
    • spores grow into gametophyte
    • eggs and sperm made
    • ferilization
    • young sporophyte
    • new sporophyte

    *NEEDS EXTENDED PERIOD OF APPROPRIATE ENVIRONMENT
  25. Gymnosperms- Reproductive cycle of gymnosperms
    All heterosporous

    • Male Haploid
    • Meiosis
    • microspore
    • immature microgametophyte (pollen)
    • mature microgametophyte
    • sperm

    • Female Haploid
    • Meiosis
    • Megaspore
    • Mega-gametophyte
    • archegonium
    • egg

    • Male Diploid
    • Fertilization
    • Zygote
    • Embryo
    • Sporophyte
    • Microsporangiate Strobilus (pollen cone)
    • Microsporangium
    • Microsporocyte

    • Female Diploid
    • Fertilization
    • Zygote
    • Embryo
    • Sporophyte
    • Megasporangiate strobilus (ovulate cone)
    • megasporangium
    • megasporocyte
  26. What the important structures are
    see drawings

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