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  1. Function of Insulin:
    –Regulates metabolism of Protein, Fat, and Carbs

    • –Facilitates glucose transport across cell membranes, amino acids into muscle cells, &
    • triglycerides into adipose tissue

    –Facilitates glucose storage in liver as glycogen & triglycerides

    –Inhibits gluconeogenesis (making glucose)

    Stimulated by increased BG

    Inhibited by low BG, glucagon, hypokalemia, somatostatin (GH), cortisol, & epinephrine
  2. Diabetes is a _______ disease. (Insufficient production of insulin from pancreas)
  3. Which organ needs a constant level of glucose in order to function properly
  4. Types of non-insulin-dependent tissues
    Red Blood Cells
  5. When we eat a meal, normally a ______ dose of insulin is released from the pancrease
    Bolus (large amount)
  6. When we are not eating, the pancreas should be releasing ______ dosages of insulin
  7. Normally, the body releases about _______ bolus of insulin in one day
  8. Function of Glucagon
    Stimulated: with low BG, PRO ingestion, & exercise

    • Increases BG (maintains normal levels) by stimulating:
    • Glycogenolysis
    • •Gluconeogenesis
    • •Ketogenesis
  9. Glucagon sends signals to the ______ to break down ______ stores in fat and protein throughout the body
    • LIVER
    • Glycogen
  10. Which cells are responsible for making insulin?
    Beta Cells
  11. Which cells are responsible for glucagon
    Alpha Cells
  12. Normal Ranges of blood sugar
  13. Diagnostic range of blood sugar for Diabetes
  14. Main risks of developing type 2 DM
    • Overweight
    • Sedentary Lifestyle
  15. Pathology of Type 1 DM
    Autoimmune antibodies attack B-cells  of pancreas --> severe lack of insulin
  16. Pathology of Type 2 DM
    Insufficient insulin secretion and/or insulin resistance...

    much more prevalent, 90-95% of diabetes cases are Type 2…Insulin Resistance is KEY FACTOR…much higher genetic tendency with type 2. Gradual process of developing Type 2 vs quick onset of Type 1
  17. Pathology of Gestational DM
    Elevated during pregnancy (most of the time BS goes back to normal, but they are at a higher risk for developing type 2 later on in life)….Large birth-weights of babies put you at risk for gestational diabetes…test high risk women at beginning of pregancy…at 24-28 weeks glucose challenge test!
  18. Risk Factors for Type 1 DM
    HLA antigens + viral infection or toxin exposure
  19. Risk Factors for Type 2 DM
    Obesity; Metabolic syndrome; Genetics; Ethnicity
  20. Risk Factors for Gestational DM
    Obesity; hx of GDM; glycosuria; +FH of DM II
  21. Typical Onset of Type 1 DM
    Sudden after long preclinical period;

    < age 30;
  22. Typical Onset of Type 2 DM
    Gradual;  > age 30

    At dx, 80% obese & 20% thin
  23. Genetic Factors to Consider for Type 1 DM
    Specific Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLAs)
  24. Genetic Factors to consider for Type 2 DM
    Maturity-Onset Diabetes of Young (MODY) genes;

    Higher risk to offspring
  25. Ethnicity Risk for Type 2 DM
    African Americans, Native Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders
  26. S/S of Type 1 Dm
    • Polyuria,
    • Polydipsia,
    • Polyphagia;
    • Wt loss,
    • Fatigue

    Risk: Ketosis (using fat cells at higher rate than other cells)
  27. S/S of Type 2 DM
    • Fatigue,
    • Visual changes,
    • Poor wound healing,
    • Recurrent infections (bladder infections)
  28. Manifestations/Complications of Gestational DM
    • High risk for:
    • HTN disorders, C-section, perinatal death, neonatal complications
Card Set:
2014-02-19 03:48:12

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