Diabetes

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Author:
NurseFaith
ID:
262709
Filename:
Diabetes
Updated:
2014-02-18 22:48:12
Tags:
Diabetes
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Description:
Diabetes
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  1. Function of Insulin:
    –Regulates metabolism of Protein, Fat, and Carbs

    • –Facilitates glucose transport across cell membranes, amino acids into muscle cells, &
    • triglycerides into adipose tissue

    –Facilitates glucose storage in liver as glycogen & triglycerides

    –Inhibits gluconeogenesis (making glucose)

    Stimulated by increased BG

    Inhibited by low BG, glucagon, hypokalemia, somatostatin (GH), cortisol, & epinephrine
  2. Diabetes is a _______ disease. (Insufficient production of insulin from pancreas)
    Metabolic
  3. Which organ needs a constant level of glucose in order to function properly
    Brain
  4. Types of non-insulin-dependent tissues
    Red Blood Cells
  5. When we eat a meal, normally a ______ dose of insulin is released from the pancrease
    Bolus (large amount)
  6. When we are not eating, the pancreas should be releasing ______ dosages of insulin
    Basil
  7. Normally, the body releases about _______ bolus of insulin in one day
    40-50
  8. Function of Glucagon
    Stimulated: with low BG, PRO ingestion, & exercise

    • Increases BG (maintains normal levels) by stimulating:
    • Glycogenolysis
    • •Gluconeogenesis
    • •Ketogenesis
  9. Glucagon sends signals to the ______ to break down ______ stores in fat and protein throughout the body
    • LIVER
    • Glycogen
  10. Which cells are responsible for making insulin?
    Beta Cells
  11. Which cells are responsible for glucagon
    Alpha Cells
  12. Normal Ranges of blood sugar
    70-100
  13. Diagnostic range of blood sugar for Diabetes
    >126
  14. Main risks of developing type 2 DM
    • Overweight
    • Sedentary Lifestyle
  15. Pathology of Type 1 DM
    Autoimmune antibodies attack B-cells  of pancreas --> severe lack of insulin
  16. Pathology of Type 2 DM
    Insufficient insulin secretion and/or insulin resistance...

    much more prevalent, 90-95% of diabetes cases are Type 2…Insulin Resistance is KEY FACTOR…much higher genetic tendency with type 2. Gradual process of developing Type 2 vs quick onset of Type 1
  17. Pathology of Gestational DM
    Elevated during pregnancy (most of the time BS goes back to normal, but they are at a higher risk for developing type 2 later on in life)….Large birth-weights of babies put you at risk for gestational diabetes…test high risk women at beginning of pregancy…at 24-28 weeks glucose challenge test!
  18. Risk Factors for Type 1 DM
    HLA antigens + viral infection or toxin exposure
  19. Risk Factors for Type 2 DM
    Obesity; Metabolic syndrome; Genetics; Ethnicity
  20. Risk Factors for Gestational DM
    Obesity; hx of GDM; glycosuria; +FH of DM II
  21. Typical Onset of Type 1 DM
    Sudden after long preclinical period;

    < age 30;
  22. Typical Onset of Type 2 DM
    Gradual;  > age 30

    At dx, 80% obese & 20% thin
  23. Genetic Factors to Consider for Type 1 DM
    Specific Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLAs)
  24. Genetic Factors to consider for Type 2 DM
    Maturity-Onset Diabetes of Young (MODY) genes;

    Higher risk to offspring
  25. Ethnicity Risk for Type 2 DM
    African Americans, Native Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders
  26. S/S of Type 1 Dm
    • Polyuria,
    • Polydipsia,
    • Polyphagia;
    • Wt loss,
    • Fatigue

    Risk: Ketosis (using fat cells at higher rate than other cells)
  27. S/S of Type 2 DM
    • Fatigue,
    • Visual changes,
    • Poor wound healing,
    • Recurrent infections (bladder infections)
  28. Manifestations/Complications of Gestational DM
    • High risk for:
    • HTN disorders, C-section, perinatal death, neonatal complications

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