Brain and cranial nerves

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Brain and cranial nerves
2014-02-19 00:16:16
brains and cranial nerves
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  1. number of cells, and mass of brain
    • One trillon cells
    • 3 pounds
    • 1300g
  2. 4 principal parts of the brain
    • brain stem
    • diencephalon
    • cerebellum
    • cerebrum
  3. hemisphere
    half of the brain
  4. Corpus Callosum
    allows communication between hemispheres of the cerebrum
  5. 3 meninges location and function of these membranes
    • Dura mater: ( superior) 
    • *endosteal: outer thicker
    • *meningeal layer: inner thinner layer 
    • Arachoid: ( medial)
    • Pia mater: ( deep)
  6. Fluid surrounding brain, function/ location?
    • cerebral spinal fluid ( csf) 
    • Location: in ventricles
    • function: exchange of nutrients, waste products, protection
  7. Barrier formed by ependymal cells, and its function
    • BBB ( blood brain barrier) 
    • protects brain from harmful substances, pathogens
  8. Where is CSF produced, where is it reabsorbed?
    • Produced:choroid plexus
    • Reabsorbed: arachnoid villi
  9. Can name cavities where CSF found and circulates
    2 lateral, third and fourth ventricles
  10. Functions of CSF
    Exchange of nutrients, waste products, protection
  11. Amount of oxygen, and its mass
    2% of body mass, 20% of oxygen
  12. Why do certain parts of brain lack blood brain barrier?
    hypothalamus, pineal gland, and pituitary
  13. wht glial cell maintains blood vessels in blood brain barrier?
  14. name (locate) portions f brain known as brain stem
    • Medulla
    • Pons
    • Mesencephalon
  15. describe location of medulla oblongata relative to spinal cord/ pons
    medulla oblongata is in between spinal cord and pons
  16. major structural components of medulla and function
    • Pyramids
    • function: decussation
  17. How decussation relates to medulla
    axons cross over to opposite sides
  18. three important center for vital body functions found in medulla
    cardiac, medullary rhythmicity, vasomotor ( blood vessel dilation, contraction)
  19. examples of centers in medulla that control non-vital functions
    swallowing, vomiting, coughing, sneezing, hiccupping
  20. cranial nerves that originate in medulla oblongata
    vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal
  21. name two nuclei that control respiratory movements in the pons
    • Pneumotaxic ( limits inhalation)
    • apneustic ( prolongs inspiration)
  22. describe location of mesencephalon or midbrain
    between the pons and third ventricle
  23. Explain location/ function of the reticular activation system? (RAS)
    contain consciousness, awakening from sleep
  24. Name four rounded elevations that are part of corpora quadrigemina
    superior and inferior colliculi
  25. function of corpora quadrigemina
    • Superior: ( reflex to vision) 
    • Inferior:( reflex in response to auditory stimuli)
  26. Location of superior and inferior colliculi?
    between cerebrum and cerebellum
  27. functions of substantia nigra and the red nucleus
    control subconscious muscular act , with cerebellum coordinates muscle activities
  28. olfactory
    sense of smell
  29. optic
  30. oculomotor
    eye and eyelid, pupil, lens shape
  31. trochlear
    eye movement, superior oblique
  32. Trigeminal
    largest, chewing sensation for head and face
  33. abducens
    eye movement ( lateral rectus)
  34. facial
    facial expression, salvation, taste, tears
  35. vestibulocochlear
    hearing, equilibrium
  36. glossopharyngeal
    salvation, taste swallowing, b.p
  37. vagus
    visceral muscle movements
  38. accessory
    swallowing, head and sholders propriations
  39. hypoglossal
    tongue movements, speech, swallowing
  40. two cranial nerves that arise from nuclei in midbrain
    oculomotor, trochlear
  41. location of cerebellum in brain
    just inferior to the occipital lobe of the cerebrum
  42. basic functions of cerebellum
    with subtantia nigra, controls all skilled motor activities
  43. hemispheres vs. lobes
    2 heispheres, 4 lobes
  44. function/ location: of flocculonodular lobe of cerebellum
    • location: cerebellum
    • function:controls sense of equilibrium and balance
  45. basic function of thalamus
    main relay center for sensory impulses ( except smell)
  46. three fibers allow nervous system to communicate
    • association: same hemisphere
    • commissural: between hemisheres
    • Projection: between hemisheres and the body, spinal cord
  47. function/ location of pineal gland
    • location: endocrine gland
    • function: secretes hormone melatonin in dark conditions, sleepiness
  48. portion of brain that controls anterior pituitary gland
    Hypothalamus ( master gland)
  49. where are hormones secreted, and what do they control
    • endocrine glands release hormones
    • controls hypothalamus
  50. 4 lobes of cerebrum ( location)
    frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
  51. primary areas of brain located
    • motor-frontal
    • sensory-parietal
    • vision-occipital
    • speech/language - temporal
  52. cerebral cortex vs. deep cortex
    • cortex surface- gray matter
    • deep cortex - white matter
  53. portion of brain that produces dopamine
    part of basal nuclie- substantia nigra
  54. why does right side of cerebrum control left side of body?
    crossing of the pyramids in the medulla
  55. name center of hypothalamus, and what they control
    • ANS 
    • controls: pituitary, emotions ( rage,agrression, sex drive) hunger(satiety) thirst, body temp, biological clock waking and sleeping
  56. location/ function of amygdala
    part of limbic system, emotional aspects of memory
  57. location/ function of limbic system
    between cerebrum and hypothalamus, emotional aspects of behavior
  58. location/ function of hippocampus
    • location: with the cerebrum
    • function: memory
  59. 4 types of brain waves
    alpha, beta, theta, delta
  60. alpha
    normal when awake, eyes closed
  61. beta
    normal active mental activity
  62. theta
    normal in children, adults indicate stress or bain dissorders
  63. delta
    • normal in adult sleep ( not when awake-brain damage) 
    • normal in awake infant