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Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide affecting 1 in _ persons in the world
what are some major types of cancer? (5)
lung, stomach, colorectal, prostate and breast cancers
is a disorder of cellular growth and differentiation characterized by uncontrolled and rapid growth
Define a cell.
basic unit of life, made of molecules in the form of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins
what are the 4 main functions of cells through which multicellular organism functions properly?
- cell proliferation
- cell specialization
- cell interaction
- cell movement
cell division is the basis for what 3 things?
cells divide through the sequence of events called __________.
what happens during the cell cycle?
cell duplicates its genetic material (DNA/chromosome) and each daughter cell receives a copy
cells are stimulated to do what 3 things? what do these outcomes depend on?
- to divide, not to divide, and die
- stimulatory or inhibitory interactions
The transformations of a normal cell into a cancerous cell is the result of?
changes to its DNA (mutations) that accumulate over time
Cancer cell growth results in? (6)
- loss of functionality of the cell
- rapid cell division
- tumor =accumulation of abnormal cells
- possible growth of cells beyond the tissue border
- invasion into other tissues
- metastasis= spread to the rest of the body
what is metastasis?
spreading of cancerous cells to the rest of the body
Cancer can arise from one of two processes, what are they?
- cells have escaped the usual growth regulators. with no controls reproduction goes non-stop. (most cases)
- cells that would normally undergo apoptosis, don't
what is apoptosis?
death of a cell
what are the 3 germ layers and name 2 types of cells/tissue for each germ laye.
- endoderm: lung cell, thyroid cell
- mesoderm: cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle cells
- ectoderm: skin cells of epidermis, neuron of brain
what is mesenchyme? where are they originated from?
- supportive/connective tissues in organs and the cells that produce them
- cells are of mesodermal origin
what is parenchyma? where is it originated from?
- cells in an organ
- typically of endodermal origin in viscera
- parenchyma cells are surrounded and supported by connective tissue
which tissues do most tumors arose from?
what are the 4 principle types of tissues?
- epithelial tissue
- connective tissue
- muscle tissue
- nervous tissue
what is the function of epithelial tissue? (3)
covers body surfaces, line hollow organs, body cavities and ducts; and forms glands
what is the function of connective tissue? (4)
protects and supports the body and its organs, binds organs together, stores energy reserves as fat, and provides immunity
what is the function of muscle tissue?
is responsible for movement and generation of force
what is the function of nervous tissue?
initiates and transmits action potentials (nerve impulses) that help coordinate body activities
what is epithelium?
cells lining internal surfaces and external surfaces of the body, including the outer layer of the skin, surface of most tubules, body cavities and lumen of organs (lungs, gut, kidney)
what are the 2 main types if epithelium, briefly describe both.
- simple: only one layer of cell
- stratified: many layer of cells
describe the basement membrane.
2 layers of dense acellular matrix: a basal lamina (secreted by epithelial cells) and a reticular lamina (secreted by underlying reticular cells)
what are the 3 jobs of stem cells?
- keep one daughter as a stem cell
- tell other daughter to differentiate
What is the first stage of tumor growth/cancer? briefly describe it.
hyperplasia: refers to tissue growth based on an excessive rate of cell division, leading to a larger than usual number of cells
what is the second stage of tumor growth/cancer? briefly describe it.
Dysplasia: an abnormal type of excessive cell proliferation characterized by loss of normal tissue arrangement and cell structure
what is the third stage of tumor growth/cancer? Briefly describe it.
carcinoma in situ: uncontrolled growth of cells that remains in the original location. Severe dysplasia
what is the fourth stage of cancer/tumor growth?
Define neoplasm/neoplasia. what's an example?
- means "new growth"
- abnormal tissue growth because of abnormal cellular-reproduction
- ex. warts
define aberrant cellular growth. (2)
- alteration in normal cell growth
- typically the growth is clonal, uncorrdinated and autonomous, which arises due to genetic changes
production or origination of cancer cells
Define tumor. Name the 2 types of tumors.
- growth of neoplastic cells clustered together to form a mass (solid mass of clonal cells)
- 2 types: benign or malignant
Define a benign tumor.
characterized by abnormal cell division but no metastasis or invasion of the surrounding tissues
Define a malignant tumor.
abnormal cell division characterized by ability to invade locally, metastasize and reoccur.
ability to establish secondary tumor growth at a new location away from the primary tumor.
Cancer is clonal. what is the meaning of this?
all cancerous cells in a tumor are derived from a single cell
The conversion of a single cell to a cancerous cell occurs in steps, with each step governed by a __________.
Mostly tumors are monoclonal, what does this mean? how is the mutation spread?
- meaning one cell origin
- mutation in a single cell can be spread via its offspring
Cancer cells become ____________ as they become malignant. How do they become this?
- different cells gain different mutations , while all cells keep their initial mutations
List 7 characteristics of benign tumors.
- similar to cell of origin
- edges move out word smoothly
- compress locally
- slow growth rate
- seldom recur after removal by surgery
- necrosis and ulceration is uncommon
- systematic effect is uncommon
List 7 characteristics of malignant tumors.
- dissimilar from cell of origin
- edges move out ward irregularly
- invade locally
- rapid to very rapid growth rate
- frequently recur after removal by surgery
- necrosis and ulceration common
- systematic effect common
what are the 2 pieces of information used to name tumors?
- based on behaviour of growth (benign or malignant)
- based on cells of origin
where is the origin of this suffix? "oma"
benign= "oma" at the end of connective tissue origin tumors
Where are the origins of these malignant suffixes? "sarcoma", "carcinoma", adenocarcinoma" "-emia"
- "sarcoma": connective or muscle tissue origin
- "carcinoma": epithelial origin
- "adenocarcinoma": glandular origin
- "-emia": blood cancers
what are some common carcinomas? (epithelial origin) (5)
- breast (women)
- prostate (men)
where can leukemia and lymphomas be found?
what are some common sarcomas? (3)
Name the origins of these benign tumors: lipoma, osteoma, hemangioma, and fibroma.
- lipoma: fatty cells
- osteoma: bone cells
- hemangioma: blood vessels
- fibroma: fibrous tissue
Describe how these descriptive terms classify tumors: papillary, medullary, scirrhous
- papillary: tumors have "frond-like" shape
- medullary: tumors don't have much connective tissue so they tend to be soft
- scirrhous: tumors have lots of connective tissue so they tend to be firm
what is the stroma? what is it also known as?
- stroma: ECM, connective tissue, blood vessels, immune cells and other cells
- also known as microenvironment
why is tumor growth dependent on the stroma? what does an increase and decrease in stroma result in?
- stroma provides nutrients and growth signals among other factors
- decrease in stroma= soft tumor
- increase in stroma=desmoplasia
what are the 4 detectable changes in the physical properties of the cancer cells? briefly describe each.
- cytoskeletal changes: changes in cytoskeleton affects cell adhesion and motility
- cell adhesion/motility: reduction of cell to cell ratio allows large masses of cells to form and limits motility
- nuclear changes: shape and organization of nuclei diff from normal cell
- Enzyme production: digest away barriers to migration and spread of tumors
Compare microscopic appearance of cancer cells and normal cells.
- large cytoplasm
- single nucleus
- single nucleolus
- fine chromatin
- small cytoplasm
- multiple nuclei
- multiple and large nucleoli
- coarse chromatin