Health science 2211- Module 2 lecture 1
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Health science 2211- Module 2 lecture 1
The wild cells
Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide affecting 1 in _ persons in the world
what are some major types of cancer? (5)
lung, stomach, colorectal, prostate and breast cancers
disorder of cellular growth and differentiation
uncontrolled and rapid growth
Define a cell.
basic unit of life
, made of
in the form of
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins
what are the
4 main functions
of cells through which multicellular organism functions properly?
cell division is the basis for what 3 things?
cells divide through the sequence of events called __________.
what happens during the cell cycle?
duplicates its genetic material
(DNA/chromosome) and each
daughter cell receives a copy
cells are stimulated to do what 3 things? what do these outcomes depend on?
to divide, not to divide, and die
stimulatory or inhibitory interactions
The transformations of a normal cell into a cancerous cell is the result of?
changes to its
that accumulate over time
Cancer cell growth results in? (6)
loss of functionality of the cell
rapid cell division
tumor =accumulation of abnormal cells
possible growth of cells beyond the tissue border
invasion into other tissues
spread to the rest of the body
what is metastasis?
spreading of cancerous cells to the rest of the body
Cancer can arise from one of two processes, what are they?
cells have escaped the usual growth regulators.
with no controls reproduction goes non-stop. (most cases)
cells that would normally undergo apoptosis, don't
what is apoptosis?
death of a cell
what are the 3 germ layers and name 2 types of cells/tissue for each germ laye.
: lung cell, thyroid cell
: cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle cells
: skin cells of epidermis, neuron of brain
? where are they originated from?
supportive/connective tissues in organs
and the cells that produce them
cells are of
what is parenchyma? where is it originated from?
cells in an organ
endodermal origin in viscera
parenchyma cells are surrounded and supported by connective tissue
which tissues do most tumors arose from?
what are the 4 principle types of tissues?
what is the function of epithelial tissue? (3)
covers body surfaces, line hollow organs, body cavities and ducts; and forms glands
what is the function of connective tissue? (4)
protects and supports the body and its organs, binds organs together, stores energy reserves as fat, and provides immunity
what is the function of muscle tissue?
responsible for movement and generation of force
what is the function of nervous tissue?
initiates and transmits action potentials (nerve impulses) that help coordinate body
what is epithelium?
cells lining internal surfaces and external surfaces of the body
, including the
outer layer of the skin, surface of most tubules, body cavities and lumen of organs
(lungs, gut, kidney)
what are the 2 main types if epithelium, briefly describe both.
: only one layer of cell
: many layer of cells
describe the basement membrane.
2 layers of dense acellular matrix: a basal lamina
(secreted by epithelial cells) and a
(secreted by underlying reticular cells)
what are the 3 jobs of stem cells?
keep one daughter as a stem cell
tell other daughter to differentiate
What is the first stage of tumor growth/cancer? briefly describe it.
tissue growth based on an excessive rate of cell division
leading to a larger than usual number of cells
what is the second stage of tumor growth/cancer? briefly describe it.
abnormal type of excessive cell proliferation
loss of normal tissue arrangement and cell structure
what is the third stage of tumor growth/cancer? Briefly describe it.
carcinoma in situ
uncontrolled growth of cells that remains in the original location
what is the fourth stage of cancer/tumor growth?
. what's an example?
abnormal tissue growth because of abnormal cellular-reproduction
aberrant cellular growth. (2)
alteration in normal cell growth
growth is clonal, uncorrdinated and autonomous
arises due to genetic changes
production or origination of cancer cells
Define tumor. Name the 2 types of tumors.
growth of neoplastic cells clustered together to form a mass
(solid mass of clonal cells)
benign or malignant
abnormal cell division but no metastasis or invasion of the surrounding tissues
abnormal cell division characterized by ability to invade locally, metastasize and reoccur.
ability to establish secondary tumor growth at a new location away from the primary tumor.
Cancer is clonal
. what is the meaning of this?
all cancerous cells in a tumor are derived from a single cell
conversion of a single cell to a cancerous cell occurs in steps
, with each step governed by a __________.
Mostly tumors are monoclonal, what does this mean? how is the mutation spread?
one cell origin
mutation in a single cell can be spread via its
Cancer cells become ____________ as they become malignant. How do they become this?
different cells gain different mutations , while all cells keep their initial mutations
List 7 characteristics of benign tumors.
similar to cell of origin
edges move out word smoothly
slow growth rate
seldom recur after removal by surgery
necrosis and ulceration is uncommon
systematic effect is uncommon
List 7 characteristics of malignant tumors.
dissimilar from cell of origin
edges move out ward irregularly
rapid to very rapid growth rate
frequently recur after removal by surgery
necrosis and ulceration common
systematic effect common
what are the 2 pieces of information used to name tumors?
based on behaviour of growth (benign or malignant)
based on cells of origin
where is the origin of this suffix? "oma"
benign= "oma" at the end of
connective tissue origin tumors
Where are the origins of these malignant suffixes? "sarcoma", "carcinoma", adenocarcinoma" "-emia"
connective or muscle tissue origin
what are some common carcinomas? (epithelial origin) (5)
where can leukemia and lymphomas be found?
what are some common sarcomas? (3)
Name the origins of these benign tumors: lipoma, osteoma, hemangioma, and fibroma.
Describe how these descriptive terms classify tumors: papillary, medullary, scirrhous
: tumors have "
don't have much connective
tissue so they tend to be soft
: tumors have
lots of connective tissue
so they tend to be
what is the stroma? what is it also known as?
ECM, connective tissue, blood vessels, immune cells and other cells
also known as
why is tumor growth dependent on the stroma? what does an increase and decrease in stroma result in?
stroma provides nutrients and growth signals among other factors
decrease in stroma= soft tumor
increase in stroma=desmoplasia
what are the 4 detectable changes in the physical properties of the cancer cells? briefly describe each.
: changes in cytoskeleton affects cell adhesion and motility
: reduction of cell to cell ratio allows large masses of cells to form and limits motility
: shape and organization of nuclei diff from normal cell
: digest away barriers to migration and spread of tumors
Compare microscopic appearance of cancer cells and normal cells.
multiple and large nucleoli