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What are the three objectives of first aid?
Prevent further injury, infection, and loss of life.
What are the four methods of controlling bleeding?
- Direct pressure
- Pressure points
- tourniquet (last resort)
How many pressure points are there on one side of the body?
Name all the pressure points.
- Collar bone
- Inner upper arm
- Inner elbow
- Upper thigh
How many clasifications of burns are there?
Name all the classifications of burns.
What are the symptoms of a first degree burn?
What are the symptoms of a second degree burn?
- Red, blistered skin
- Severe pain
What are the symptoms of a third degree burn?
- Destroyed tissue, skin and bone
- Pain may be absent due to destroyed nerve endings
What are the two types of fractures?
- Closed/ simple
How do you tell the difference between a closed/simple and an open/compound?
- Closed/simple: broken bone without a break in the skin.
- Open/ Compound: break in the skin with possible bone protusion.
What is electric shock?
Person comes into contact with an electric energy source.
What are the symptoms of electric shock?
Ranges from little to no evidence of shock to severe trauma with possible cadiac arrest.
How many heat related injuries are there? And what are they?
- Heat exhaustion
- Heat stroke
What causes heat exhaustion?
Breakdown of sweating mechanism.
What are the symptoms of heat exhaustion?
- Skin is cool, moist and clammy
- Pupils are dilated
- Body temp. normal to high
- Sweating profusely
What causes heat stroke?
The breakdown of the sweating mechanism.
What are the symptoms of heat stroke?
- Unable to eliminate excessive body heat
- hot and/or dry skin
- uneven pupil dilation
- weak rapid pulse
How many cold weather injuries are there?
Name all the cold weather injuries.
- Superficial frostbite
- Deep frostbite
What are the symptoms of Hypothermia?
- General cooling of body due to exposure of Low temperature
- Possibly unconscious
- Breathing is slow and shallow
- Pulse faint
- body tissue rigid
- arms and legs stiff
What are the symptoms of superficial frostbite?
Ice crystals forming in the upper skin layers after exposure to 32 degrees or lower
What are the symptoms of deep frostbite?
Ice crystals forming in the deeper skin layes after exposure to 32 degrees of lower
What is shock?
The body suffering from insufficient blood flow throughout the body.
How many types of shock are there? And what are they?
- Septic shock
- Anaphylatic shock
- Cardiogenic shock
- Hypovolemic shock
- Neurogenic shock
What is the cause of septic shock?
Bacteria multiplying in the blood and releasing toxins.
What is the cause of anaphylatic shock?
- Severe hypersnsitivity or allergic reastion to:
- insect stings
What is the cause of cardiogenic shock?
Heart is damaged and unable to supply suffiecient blood to the body. Results in heart attack or congestive heart failure.
What is the cause of Hypovolemic shock?
Severe blood and fluid loss caused by a traumatic bodily injury. Unable to pump blood to the rest of the body.
What is the cause of Neurogenic shock?
Spinal cord injury