Review of Nematodes

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sinopa
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262740
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Review of Nematodes
Updated:
2014-03-11 02:59:23
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cpp ahs 302L animal health science parasitology nematodes
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ahs 302 winter 2014 dr wallace
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  1. Describe Phylum Nematoda
    • Multicellular
    • unsegmented
    • elongated
    • round at both ends
  2. Common name for Nematode
    Roundworms
    • Anterior end of Nematoda
    • Cervical alae
    • Posterior end of MALE nematoda
    • copulary bursa
  3. What type of body cavity does Nematoda have?
    Pseudocoelom
  4. Hypodermis
    support
  5. Somatic muscle layer
    movement
  6. Oviparous
    female produces eggs that contain a single cell or morula stage
  7. Ovoviviparous
    female produces eggs that contain a first stage larva
  8. Larviparous
    females give birth to live larvae
    • Ascaroid
    • Ascarid
  9. Spiruroid
  10. Trichostrongyle
    • Trichuroid
    • Trichinelloid
  11. Microfilariae larvae
    • Lungworm
    • Kinked tail larvae
    • Dracunculoid
    • Long Tail Larvae
  12. Spirocerca lupi
    • esophageal worm of dogs and cats
    • worms live in tunnels within nodules created within esophague
    • eggs are expelled through fistulous tracts and passed in feces
    • spread by dung beetle
    • Fibrous nodules in canine esophague
    • Spirocerca lupi

    Esophageal worm of dogs and cats
    • Spirocerca lupi
    • Esophageal worm of dogs and cats
    • paper clip shape
    • found on flotation of feces or vomitus
    • Spiruoid egg
    • Spirocerca lupi
    • esophageal worm of dogs and cats
  13. Physaloptera sp
    • stomach worm of dogs and cats
    • sucks blood from the gastric mucosa
    • causes vomiting, diarrhea and dark stools
    • adult worms can be passed in vomit
    • embryonated eggs passed in feces: eggs length is twice width
    • diagnosis on fecal float
    • Physaloptera sp
    • stomach worm of dogs and cats
    • Spiruoid egg
    • Physaloptera sp
    • stomach worm of dogs and cats
  14. Toxocara canis
    Toxocara cati
    Toxocara leonina
    • roundworm of dogs and cats
    • small intestine
    • adults move about small intestine
    • T. canis & T. cati - zoonotic
    • Toxocara canis
    • unlarvated
    • Ascaroid/Ascarid egg
    • roundworms
  15. Toxocara spp inside small intestine
  16. Roundworms/Ascarids/Toxocara
    • causes diarrhea, vomiting of constipation
    • Kittens and puppies pot-bellied apperance
    • unembronated or unlarvated eggs passed in feces
    • most commonly diagnosed via fecal flotation
    • Toxocara canis 
    • larvated
    • roundworms
    • Toxascaris leonina
    • roundworms of dogs and cats
  17. Diagnosis of Toxocara spp.
    • Distinctive worms in vomitis
    • eggs seen microscopically
    • direct smear of feces
    • simple fecal floataion
    • centrifugal fecal flotation
    • Toxocara spp.
    • Ascarid egg
    • Roundworms
  18. Hookworms of dogs and cats
    Ancylostoma spp
    • secretes anticoagulant and feeds on blood
    • worldwide - tropical and subtropical
    • transmission - ingestion of eggs, through the skin, across placenta and mammary milk
    • can cause black, tarry stool, anemia and diarrhea
  19. Ancylostoma caninum
    hookworm of dogs
  20. Ancylostoma tubaeforme
    hookworm of cats
  21. Ancylostoma braziliense
    hookworm of dogs and cats
    • Ancylostoma spp.
    • Trichostrongyle egg
    • Hookworm of dogs and cats
  22. Diagnosis of Hookworms
    • eggs can be found on standard fecal flotation
    • eggs, oval, thin walled 8-16 cell morula
    • centrifugal flotation methods recommended higher sensitivity
  23. Trichuris vulpis
    • canine whipworm
    • cat species T. camanula and T. serrata are not seen in america
    • cecum and colon
    • passed via fecal-oral route
    • eggs have thick, yellow-brown shell, bipolar plugs
    • fecal flotation - let float 15 min
    • Trichuris vulpis
    • canine whipworm
    • Dirofilaria immitis
    • canine heartworm
  24. Dirofilaria immitis
    • canine heartworm
    • requires mosquito intermediate host
    • PPP - 6 months
    • symptoms: none, mild to severe cough, exercise intolerance, heart failure, death
  25. Canine heartworm disease
    Dirofilaria immitis
    • transmitted by infected mosquito
    • microfilaria - offspring of the adult worms in the heart
    • if dog is microfilaremic, diagnosis can be made on fresh blood smears, concentraion or filter techniques
    • microfilaria must be differentiated from Acanthocheilonema (Dipetalonema) reconditum
  26. Describe D. immitis
    straight, tapered atnerior end, straight posterior end, average 310 micrometers
  27. Describe A. reconditum
    curved, blunt anterior end, curved or hooked posterior end, average 280 micrometers
    • D. immitis
    • canine heartworm
    • A. reconditum
    • subcutaneous filarial worm
  28. Diagnosis of Dirofilaria immitis
    • fresh blood smear for microfilaria
    • examination of buffy coat - concentraion of microfilaria
    • modified knotts test - concentration and fifferentiation of microfilaria
    • Di-Fil test kit - filtering of microfilaria
    • Antigen - ELISA tests - test host response to the parasite
    • Antibody tests - tests hosts response to microfilaria
  29. Diagnosis of D. immitis in felines
    • susceptible but very resistant to parasite
    • tend to have fewer adult worms
    • false negatives on microfilaria and antigen tests
    • false positive antibody test
    • considered positive if both antigen and antibody test are positive AND respiratory signs
  30. Acanthocheilonema reconditum (Dipetalonema)
    • subcutaneous filarial worm
    • typically found in blood
    • "Button hook" tail and blunt anterior
    • must be differentiated from D. immitis
    • non-pathogenic
    • vector is Ctenocephalides felis
  31. Aelurostrongylus abstrusus

    feline lungworm
  32. Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
    • feline lungworm
    • larva have S shape tail with spine
    • diagnosis on fecal float, baemann or tracheal wash
    • snails and slugs are intermediate host
    • often acquired from ingesting transport hosts (frogs, birds)
    • Filaroides species
    • canine lungworm
  33. Filaroides species
    • canine lungworm
    • larva have short S-shaped appendage tail
    • L1 is immediately infective
    • fecal-oral transmission or from saliva (newborn puppies)
    • diagnosis finding larva in fecal float or Baermann
    • Thelazia californiesis
    • eyeworm of canines and felines
  34. Thelazia californiensis
    • eyeworm of canines and felines
    • adult worms recovered from conjunctival sac and lacrimal duct
    • transmitted by the face fly Musca autumnalis

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