Metodik: G & R frågor och svar från boken

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Metodik: G & R frågor och svar från boken
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2014-02-19 12:14:53
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Metodik
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Metodik 1-11 G & R 2014
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Scientific Foundations for Coaching Psychology
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  1. Scientific Foundations for Coaching Psychology

    -John J.Shaugnessy
    • “One of the best ways to understand the scientific method as a means of seeking
    • truth is to distinguish it from our “everyday” ways of knowing. Just as a telescope and a microscope extend our everyday abilities to see, the scientific method extends our veryday ways of knowing”
  2. How can a scientist practice science while sitting
    under a tree?
    Science is a way of thinking, and it is possible to think scientifically anywhere.
  3. What is meant by a ‘prepared mind’ in science?
    A prepared mind refers to the ability to recognize and react to unexpected findings because the person has a sufficient background in, and understanding of, the phenomena under study.
  4. What are some of the major characteristics of
    scientists?
    Scientists are pervasive skeptics who challenge accepted wisdom, are intellectually excited by questions, and are willing to tolerate uncertainty.
  5. What do art and science have in common?
    Scientists and artists share curiosity, creativity, skepticism, tolerance for ambiguity, commitment to hard work, and systematic thinking.
  6. What are the common methods of acquiring knowledge?
    The common methods of acquiring knowledge are tenacity, intuition, authority, empiricism, rationalism, and science.
  7. Which two methods are combined in science?
    Science combines empiricism (knowledge through observation) and rationalism(knowledge through reasoning).
  8. What is meant by naïve empiricism?
    Naïve empiricism insists on experiencing evidence directly through the senses. “I won’t Believe it unless I see it”. But you wouldn’t say that New York or gravity doesn’t exist just because you have not seen it.
  9. What is meant by sophisticated empiricism?
    In contrast to naïve empiricism it says that we don’t have to see it to believe it. So it allows indirect evidence of a phenomena, such as the effects of gravity on falling objects.
  10. What are the limitations of rationalism?
    The limitation of rationalism is that the premises must be correct for the conclusions to be correct.
  11. What are the limitations of empiricism?
    The limitations of empiricism is that, by itself, it does little more than collect facts; it needs rational processes to organize these facts.
  12. How did the early practical skills of artisans contribute
    to modern science?
    The early practical skills of artisans illustrated the advantage of abstract information in solving everyday problems, thus justifying the kind of scientific study that seeks to systematically develop such information.
  13. What contribution did Thales make to science?
    Thales, considered the father of science, rejected mysticism and studied natural phenomena using empirical observation and rational thought.
  14. What was the relationship of science to theology during the Middle Ages?
    During the Middle Ages, science was used to support theological ideas.
  15. Distinguish between modern technology and modern science.
    Modern technology is the practical application of scientific discoveries, whereas modern science is a way of thinking about and studying phenomena.
  16. What is the orderliness belief and what does it have to do with science?
    The orderliness belief is the idea that the universe operates in a lawful manner. Without this belief, it would make no sense to engage in scientific investigation, because there would be no general principles to discover.
  17. Briefly outline some of the more influential schools of psychology.
    Some of the more influential schools of psychology were structuralism, functionalism, psychoanalysis, Gestalt psychology, behaviorism, humanistic psychology, and cognitive psychology.
  18. What is the nature of modern mainstream psychology?
    Psychologists of today are unlikely to be strong adherents of any particular school. Instead they are drawing from many psychological theories and areas of research.
  19. Why is it critical that psychology be scientific and objective?
    Psychology needs to be scientific and objective because the subjective impressions of people about psychological events tend to be undependable.
  20. Why is it important that coaching have a scientific basis?
    • The importance of a scientific basis in coaching is central. When you want to help a Another person forward you must be sure that your methods to this is valid and reliable.
    • Maybe your client just is feeling better because he/she now has somebody to talk to? What happens with this client when the coaching sessions come’s to an end? Have your methods really worked or not?
  21. Is psychology a social, physical or biological science?
    All Three, different directions
  22. What are the data in psychology?
    The data in psychology are observations of behavior.
  23. How do facts and constructs differ?
    Facts are directly observed, whereas constructs are inferences about unseen mechanisms, drawn to explain observations.
  24. What are the basic assumptions that all scientists accept about the universe?

    Science is built on the following assumptions:
    • 1; A true physical universe exists
    • 2;the universe is primarily an orderly system
    • 3;the principles of this orderly universe can be discovered, particularly through scientific research
    • 4; and knowledge of the universe is always incomplete. Therefore, all knowledge and theories are tentative.
  25. What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning?
    Going from empirical observations to constructs is inductive reasoning; going from constructs to predictions is deductive reasoning.
  26. What is a theory and how is it useful in science?
    A theory is a formalized set of concepts that summarizes and organizes observations and inferences, provides tentative explanations for phenomena, and provides the foundation for making predictions. (Inductive theories, deductive theories, functional theories, and the model)

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